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The Patthanuddesa Dipani (The Buddhist Philosophy of Relations) by Mahathera Ledi Sayadaw, Aggamahapandita, D.Litt., DhammaWeb.Net THE MANUALS OF BUDDHISM,The Patthanuddesa Dipani or The Buddhist Philosophy of Relations

    The Patthanuddesa Dipani

    The Buddhist Philosophy of Relations

    by Mahathera Ledi Sayadaw, Aggamahapandita, D.Litt.

     

    Translated into English by Sayadaw U Nyana, Patamagyaw of Masoeyein Monastery Mandalay.
    Edited by The English Editorial Board

    Note to the electronic version:

    This electronic version is reproduced directly from the printed version The text is an English translation from the original Burmese. No attempt has been made to to change any of the English phraseology. The reason for putting this book into electronic media is that the book is out of print and the text has been found very a valuable source of inspiration to those practising Vipassana meditation, despite using English language which is somewhat archaic.

    Printed and published by U Myint Maung, Deputy Director, Regd: (02405/02527) at the Religious Affairs Dept. Press. Yegu, Kaba-Aye P.O., Rangoon, Burma.

    PREFACE to the published book (now out of print)

    Buddhism views the world, with the exception of Nibbana and pannatti, to be impermanent, liable to suffering, and without soul-essence. So Buddhist philosophy, to elaborate the impermanency as applied to the Law of Perpetual Change, has from the outset dissolved all things, all phenomena both psychical and physical, into a continuous succession of happenings, of states (sabhava) of mind and matter, under the Fivefold Law of Cosmic Order (niyama). And the happenings are determined and determining, both as to their constituent states and as to other happenings, in a variety of ways, which Buddhist Philosophy expresses by the term 'paccaya' or 'relations.' One complex happening of mental and material states, with its three phases of time--genesis or birth, cessation or death and a static interval between--is followed by another happening, wherein there is always a causal series of relations. Nothing is casual and fortuitous. When one happening by its arising, persisting, cessation, priority, and posteriority, is determined by and determining another happening by means of producing (janaka), supporting (upathambhaka), and maintaining (anupalana), the former is called the relating thing (paccaya-dhamma), the latter the related thing (paccayuppanna-dhamma), and the determination or the influence or the specific function is called the correlativity (paccayasatti). As the various kinds of influence are apparently known, the relations are classified into the following 24 species:

    1. Hetu--condition or root
    2. Arammana--object
    3. Adhipati--dominance
    4. Anantara--contiguity
    5. Samanantara--immediate contiguity
    6. Sahajali--coexistence
    7. Annamanna--reciprocity
    8. Nissaya--dependence
    9. Upanissaya--sufficing condition
    10. Purejata--pre-existence
    11. Pacchajata--causal relation of posteriority in time
    12. Asevana--habitual recurrence
    13. Kamma--kamma or action
    14. Vipaka--effect
    15. Ahara/--food
    16. Indriya--control
    17. Jhana--jhana or ecstacy
    18. Magga--path
    19. Sampayutta--association
    20. Vippayutta--dissociation
    21. Atthi--presence
    22. Natthi/--absence
    23. Vigata--abeyance
    24. Avigata--continuance

    These 24 species of relations are extensively and fully expounded in the seventh and last of the analytical works in the Abhidhamma Pitaka of the Buddhist Canon, called the Patthana ('The Eminence'), or the Maha-Pakarana ('The Great Book').

    The well-known Ledi Sayadaw Mahathera, D. Litt., Aggamahapandita, has written in Pali a concise exposition of these relations known as Patthanudesa-dipani, in order to help those who wish to study the Buddhist philosophy of relations expounded in that Great Book. In introducing these relations to the student of philosophical research before he takes the opportunity of making himself acquainted with the methodological elaboration of correlations in the Patthana, the Eminent the Eminent Great Book, the Mahathera deals with the subject under three heads:

    1. The Paccayattha-dipana or the Analytical Exposition of Relations with their denotations and connotations
    2. The Paccaya-sabhagasangaho or the Synthesis of Relations
    3. The Paccaya-ghatana-nayo or the Synchrony of Relations.

    The following translation has been undertaken with the hope of rendering the Ledi Sayadaw's work intelligible to the English student. If the present translation makes any contribution to the advancement of learning and knowledge in the matter of apprehending the general scheme of causal laws in terms of 'relations' in the field of Buddhist philosophy, the translator will deem himself well rewarded for his labour. It may, however, be necessary to mention here that the original form, sense, and meaning of the Venerable Author are, as far as possible, cautiously preserved; hence the literal character of the translation--If it appears so--in some places. Nevertheless ' the translator ventures to hope that any discrepancy that may have crept in, will be accordingly overlooked.

    In conclusion, it is with great pleasure that I express my indebtedness to U Aung Hla, M.A. (Cantab.), Barrister-at-Law who has very kindly, amidst his own many duties, taken the trouble of revising the manuscript, and has also helped me in getting it through the press and in the correction of the proofs; my thanks are also due to Saya U Ba, M.A., A.T.M., for his valuable assistance, and to the printers for their courtesy and cooperation.

    Last, but not least, I must gratefully acknowledge the timely help from U Ba Than and Daw Tin Tin, of Rangoon, who have voluntarily and so generously undertaken to meet the cost of publication of one thousand copies of the book, which but for their kind suggestion, would not have materialised in this form.

    SAYADAW U NYANA
    Masoyein Monastery,
    Mandalay West,
    February, 1935

    1. Hetu-Paccaya or The Relation by Way of Root

    What is the Hetu-relation? Greed (lobha), hate (dosa), dullness (moha), and their respective opposites, viz', disinterestedness (alobha), amity (adosa), intelligence (amoha) are all hetu-relations.

    What are the things that are related by these hetu-relations? Those classes of mind and of mental qualities that are in coexistence along with greed, hate, dullness, disinterestedness, amity, and intelligence, as well as the groups of material qualities which coexist with the same, are the things that are so related. All these are called hetupaccayuppanna dhamma,> since they arise or come into existence by virtue of the hetu-relation.

    In the above exposition, by "the groups of material qualities which coexist with the same" are meant the material qualities produced by kamma at the initial moment of the hetu-conditioned conception of a new being, as well as such material qualities as may be produced by the hetuc-onditioned mind during the lifetime. Here by "the moment of conception" is meant the nascent instant of the rebirth-conception, and by "the lifetime" is meant the period starting from the static instant of the rebirth-conception right on to the moment of the dying-thought.

    In what sense is hetu to be understood? And in what sense paccaya? Hetu is to be understood in the sense of root (mulattha); and paccaya in the sense of assisting in the arising, or the coming to be, of the paccayuppanna dhamma or upakarattha. Of these two, mulattha is the state of being a root of the root, greed--and so on, as shown in Mula- yamaka. We have illustrated this mulattha in the Mula-yamaka-dipani by the simile of a tree. However, we shall deal with it here again.

    Suppose a man is in love with a woman. Now so long as he does not dispel the lustful thought, all his acts, words and thoughts regarding this woman, will be cooperating with lust (or greed), which at the same time has also under its control the material qualities produced by the same thought. We see then that all these states of mental and material qualities have their root in lustful greed for that woman. Hence, by being a hetu (for it acts as a root) and by being a paccaya (for it assists in the arising of those states of mind and body), greed is hetu- paccaya. The rest may be explained and understood in the same manner- i.e., the arising of greed by way of desire for desirable things; the arising of hate by way of antipathy against hateful things; and the arising of dullness by way of lack of knowledge respecting dull things.

    Take a tree as an illustration--we see that the roots of a tree, having firmly established themselves in the ground and drawing up sap both from soil and water, carry that sap right up to the crown of the tree, and so the tree develops and grows for a long time. In the same way, greed, having firmly established itself in desirable things and drawing up the essence of pleasure and enjoyment from them, conveys that essence to the concomitant mental elements, till they burst into immoral acts and words. That is to say, greed brings about transgression as regards moral acts and words. The same is to be said of hate, which by way of aversion draws up the essence of displeasure and discomfort, and also of dullness, which by way of lack of knowledge cherishes the growth of the essence of vain thought on many an object.

    Transporting the essence thus, the three elements, lobha, dosa, and moha, operate upon the component parts, so that they become happy (so to speak) and joyful at the desirable objects, etc. The component parts also become as they are operated upon, while the coexistent material qualities share the same effect. Here, from the words Sampayutta-dhamme abhiharati, it is to be understood that lobha transports the essence of pleasure and enjoyment to the concomitant elements.

    Coming now to the bright side--suppose the man sees danger in sensual pleasure, and gives up that lustful thought for the woman. In doing so, disinterestedness as regards her arises in him. Before this, there took place impure acts, words and thoughts having illusion as their root; but for the time being these are no longer present and in their stead there arise pure acts, words and thoughts having their root in disinterestedness. Moreover, renunciation, self-control, Jhana-exercise or higher ecstatic thoughts also come into being. Disinterestedness (alobha), therefore, is known as hetu-paccaya, it being a hetu because it acts as a root, while it is a paccaya because it assists in the arising of the concomitant. The same explanation applies to the remainder of disinterestedness and aIso to amity and intelligence, which three are the opposites of greed, hate and ignorance respectively.

    Here, just as the root of the tree stimulates the whole stem and its parts, so it is with disinterestedness. It dispels the desire for desirable things and having promoted the growth of the essence of pleasure void of greed it cherishes the concomitant elements with that essence till they become so happy and joyful that they even reach the height of Jhanic-, Path-, or Fruition-pleasure. Similarly, amity and intelligence respectively dispel hate and ignorance with regard to hateful and dull things and promote the growth of the essence of pleasure void of hate and dullness. Thus the operation of the three elements (alobha, adosa, and amoha) lasts for a long time, making their mental concomitants happy and joyful. The concomitant elements also become as they are operated upon, while the coexistent groups of material qualities are affected in the same way.

    Here the word lobhavivekasukharasam is a compound of the words lobha, viveka, sukha and rasa. Viveka is the state of being absent. Lobhaviveka is that which is absent from greed, or, is the absence of greed. Lobhaviveka-sukha is the pleasure which arises from the absence of greed. Hence the whole compound is defined thus: Lobhavivekasukharasa is the essence of pleasure which is derived from the absence of greed.

    What has just been expounded is the Law of Patthana in the Abhidhamma. Turning to the Law of Suttanta, the two elements of dullness and greed, which are respectively termed nescience and craving, are the entire roots of all the three rounds of misery[1]. As to hate, it, being the incidental consequence of greed, is only a root of evil. The two elements of intelligence and disinterestedness, which are respectively termed wisdom and the element of renunciation, are the entire roots for the dissolution of the rounds of misery. As to amity, it, being the incidental consequence of disinterestedness, is only a root of good. Thus the six roots become the causes of all the states of mind and body, which are either coexistent or non-coexistent. Now what has been said is the Law of Suttanta.

    End of the Hetu-Relation

    2. Arammana-Paccaya or the Relation of Object

    What is the Arammana-relation? All classes of consciousness, all states of mental concomitants, all kinds of material qualities, all phases of nibbana, all terms expressive of concepts, are arammana- relations. There is, in fact, not a single thing (dhamma) which does not become an object of mind and of the mental elements. Stated concisely, object is of six different kinds: visible object, audible object, odorous object, sapid object, tangible object, and cognizable object.

    Which are those things that are related by the arammana-relations? All classes of mind and their concomitants are the things that are related by the arammana-relations. There is indeed not a single class of consciousness that can exist without its having an existing (bhutena) or non-existing (abhutena) object. (Bhutena and abhutena may also be rendered here as 'real' and 'unreal', or, as 'present' and 'non- present', respectively).

    Here the present visible object is the arammana-paccaya, and is causally related to the two classes, good and bad, of consciousness of sight. Similarly, the present audible object is causally related to the two classes of consciousness of sound; the present odorous obect, to the two classes of consciousness of smell; the present sapid object, to the two classes of consciousness of taste; the present three classes of tangible object, to the two classes of consciousness of touch; and the present five objects of sense, to the three classes of consciousness known as the triple element of apprehension[2]. All these five objects of sense, present, past or future, and all objects of thought, present, past, future or outside time, are arammana-paccaya and are causally related, severally, to the seventy-six classes of consciousness known as mind-cognitions (or elements of comprehension).

    In what sense is 'arammana' to be understood, and in what sense 'paccaya'? Arammana is to be understood in the sense of 'alambitabba', which means that which is held or hung upon, so to speak, by mind and mental elements. Paccaya is to be understood in the sense of 'upakaraka,' which means that which assists or renders help (in the arising of paccayuppannadhamma.)[3]

    Concerning the word 'alambitabba', the function of the 'alambana' of minds and their mental factors is to take hold of or to attach to the object. For instance, there is in this physical world a kind of metal which receives its name of 'ayokantaka' (literally, iron-desire), lodestone, on account of its apparent desire for iron. When it gets near a lump of iron, it shakes itself as though desiring it. Moreover, it moves itself forward and attaches itself firmly to the iron. In other cases, it attracts the iron, and so the iron shakes itself, approaches the lodestone, and attaches itself firmly to it. Here we see the power of the lodestone, which may be taken as a striking representation of the 'alambana' of mind and the mental factors.

    They (mind and its concomitants) not only attach themselves to objects, but, at the stage of their coming into existence within a personal entity, rise and cease every moment, while the objects remain present at the avenues of the six doors[4]. Thus the rising and ceasing is just like that of the sound of a gong, which is produced only at each moment we strike its surface, followed by immediate silence. It is also like that of the sound of a violin, which is produced only while we strike its strings with the bow over its strings and then immediately ceases.

    To a sleeping man--while the life-continua are flowing (in the stream of thought)--kamma, the sign of kamma and the sign of the destiny awaiting him in the succeeding life--which had distinctly entered the avenues of the six doors at the time of approaching death in the preceding existence--are arammana-relations, and are causally related to (the nineteen classes of) consciousness known as the life- continuum.

    End of the Arammana-Relation.

    3: Adhipati-Paccaya or the Relation of Dominance

    The relation of dominance is of two kinds: the objective dominance and the coexistent dominance. Of these two, what is the relation of objective dominance? Among the objects dealt with in the section on the Arammana-relation there are some objects which are most agreeable, most lovable, most pleasing and most regardable. Such objects exhibit the relation of objective dominance. Here the objects may, naturally, be either agreeable or disagreeable; but by the word 'the most agreeable objects' only those objects that are most highly esteemed by this or that person are meant as exhibiting this relation. Excepting the two classes of consciousness rooted in aversion[5] the two classes of consciousness rooted in ignorance and the tactual consciousness accompanied by pain, together with the concomitants of all these, it may be shown, analytically[6], that all the remaining classes of Kama- consciousness, Rupa-consciousness, Arupa-consciousness and Transcendental consciousness, together with all their respective concomitants and all the most agreeable material qualities, are paccaya-dhamma.

    Of these, Kama-objects are said to exhibit the causal relation of objective dominance only when they are highly regarded, otherwise they do not. But those who reach the Jhana stages are never lacking in high esteem for the sublime Jhanas they have obtained. Ariyan disciples also never fail in their great regard for the Transcendental Dhammas[7] they have obtained and enjoyed.

    What are the things that are related by this relation? The eight classes of consciousness rooted in appetite (lobha), the eight classes of Kamaloka moral consciousness, the four classes of in-operative Kamaloka consciousness connected with knowledge, and the eight classes of Transcendental Consciousnes--these are the things related by this relation. Here the sixfold mundane objects[8] are causally related to the eight classes of consciousness rooted in appetite. The seventeen classes of mundane moral consciousness are related to the four classes of moral Kama-consciousness disconnected from knowledge. The first three pairs of the Path and Fruit, and Nibbana, together with all those classes of mundane moral consciousness, are related to the four classes of moral Kama-consciousness connected with knowledge. The highest--the fourth stage of the Path and Fruit of Arahantship--together with Nibbana are related to the four classes of inoperative Kama-consciousness connected with knowledge. And Nibbana is related to the eight classes of Transcendental Consciousness.

    In what sense is arammana to be understood, and in what sense Adhipati? Arammana is to be understood in the sense of alambitabba (cf. arammana-paccaya) and adhipati in the sense of adhipaccattha. Then what is adhipaccattha? Adhipaccattha is the potency of objects to control those states of mind and mental qualities by which the objects are highly regarded. It is to be understood that the relating things (paccaya-dhamma) of arammanadhipati resemble the overlords, while the related things (paccayuppanna-dhamma) resemble the thralls in human society.

    In the Sutasoma Jataka, Porisada, the king, owing to his extreme delight in human flesh, abandoned his kingdom solely for the sake of the taste of human flesh and lived a wanderer's life in the forest. Here the savour of human flesh is the paccayadhamma of arammanadhipati; and King Porisada's consciousness rooted in appetite is the paccayuppana- dhamma. And again, King Sutasoma, having a very high regard for Truth[9], forsook his sovereignty, all his royal family and even his life for the sake of Truth, and went to throw himself into the hands of Porisada. In this case, Truth is the paccayadhamma and King Sutasoma's moral consciousness is the paccayuppannadhamma. Thus must we understand all objects of sense to which great regard is attached.

    What is the relation of coexistent dominance? Intention or desire- to-do, mind[10] or will, energy or effort, and reason or investigation, which have arrived at the dominant state, belong to this relation.

    What are the things related by this relation? Classes of mind and of mental qualities which are adjuncts of the dominants, and material qualities produced by dominant thoughts are the things that are related by this relation.

    In what sense is sahajata to be understood, and in what sense adhipati? Sahajata is to be understood in the sense of sahuppadanattha, and adhipati in the sense of abhibhavanattha. Here, a phenomenon, when it appears not only appears alone, but simultaneously causes its adjuncts to appear. Such a causal activity of the phenomenon is termed the sahuppadanattha. And the term abhibhavanattha means overcoming. For instance, King Cakkavatti, by his own power or merit, overcomes and becomes lord of the inhabitants of the whole continent whom he can lead according to his own will. They also become according as they are led. In like manner, those four influences which have arrived at the dominant stage become lord of, and lead, so to speak, their adjuncts to be at their will in each of their respective functions. The adjuncts also become according as they are led. To take another example, in each of these masses, earth, water, fire, and air, we see that the four elements--extension, cohesion, heat, and motion--are respectively predominant, and each has supremacy over the other three components and makes them conform to its own intrinsic nature[11]. The other three members of the group of four 'elements' also have to follow after the nature of the predominant element. In the same way, these four dominants, which have arrived at the dominant stage through their power, make the adjuncts conform to their own intrinsic nature. And their adjuncts also have to follow after the nature of the dominants. Such is the meaning of abhibhavana. Here some might say: "If these things, leaving out intention, are to be called dominants on account of their overcoming the adjuncts, greed also ought to be called a dominant, for obviously it possesses a more overwhelming power over the adjuncts than intention." But to this we may reply: Greed is, indeed, more powerful than intention, but only with ordinary unintelligent men. With the wise, intention is more powerful than greed in overwhelming the adjuncts. If it is assumed that greed is more powerful, then how should people, who are in the hands of greed, give up the repletion of their happy existence and wealth, carry out the methods of renunciation, and escape from the circle of misery? But, because intention is more powerful than greed, therefore those people who are in the hands of greed are able to give up the repletion of happy existence and wealth, fulfil the means of renunciation, and escape from the circle of misery. Hence, intention is a true dominant,--and not greed. The like should be borne in mind--in the same fashion--when intention is contrasted with hate, and so forth.

    Let us explain this more clearly. When there arise great and difficult manly enterprises, the accomplishment of such enterprises necessitates the arising of these four dominants. How? When ill-intentioned people encounter any such enterprise, their intention recedes. They are not willing to undertake it. They leave it, having no inclination for it, and even say: "The task is not within the range of our ability." As to well-intentioned people, their intention becomes full of spirit at the sight of such a great enterprise. They are very willing to undertake it. They make up their mind to accomplish the task, saying: "This has been set within the orbit of our ability." A person of this type is so persuaded by his intention that he is unable to give up the enterprise during the course of his undertaking, so long as it is not yet accomplished. And since this is the case the task will some day arrive at its full accomplishment even though it may be a very great one.

    Now, let us turn to the case of men of the indolent class. When they come face to face with such a great task they at once shrink from it. They shrink from it because they foresee that they will have to go through great hardships and also undergo bodily and mental pain if they wish to accomplish it. As to the industrious man, he becomes filled with energy at the sight of it and wishes to set himself to it. He goes on through thick and thin with the performance of the task for any length of time. He never turns back from his exertions, nor does he become disappointed. What he only thinks about is that such a great task cannot be accomplished without unswerving efforts every day and every night. And this being the case, the great task will certainly reach its end one day.

    Let us take the case of the feeble-minded. They also turn away when they see such a great task. They will certainly never think of it again. But it is quite different with the strong-minded person. When he sees such a task he becomes highly interested in it. He is quite unable to dispel the thought of it. He is all the time wrapped up in thoughts about the task, and at its bidding sets himself to it for a long time, enduring all kinds of bodily and mental pain. The remainder should hereafter be explained in the same manner as the dominant intention above.

    Again a few words about unintelligent men. When they are confronted with such a task they become blinded. They know not how to begin, nor how to go on with the work, nor how to bring it to its end. They feel as if they had entered the dark where not a single light of inclination towards its performance has been set up to guide them. On the other hand--to take the more intellgent case--when a person of this type has to tackle such a great task he feels as if he were lifted up to the summit of his intellect, whereupon he discerns whence to start and whither to end. He also knows what advantage and blessing will accrue to him from its performance. He invents many devices for its easy accomplishment. He continues on with the work for a long time, and so on and so forth. The rest should be explained in the same manner as the dominant effort--only inserting the words 'with an enormous amount of investigation' in place of 'unswerving efforts'.

    Thus, when there arise great and difficult manly enterprises, these four dominants become predominant among the means of their accomplishment. Owing to the existence of these four dominants there exist distinguished or dignified persons (personages) such as the Omniscient Buddhas, the Pacceka Buddhas,[12] the most eminent disciples, the great disciples and the ordinary disciples. Owing to the appearance of such personages, there also appear, for the general prosperity and welfare of mankind numerous[13] arts and sciences, as well as general articles of furniture to suit and serve human needs and wants under the canopy of civilization.

    End of the Adhipati-Relation.

    4. Anantara-Paccaya or the Relation of Contiguity

    What is the Anantara-paccaya? All classes of consciousness and their mental concomitants, which have just ceased (in the immediately preceding instant), are anantara-paccayas. Which are those that are related by this paccaya? All classes of consciousness and their mental concomitants, which have just arisen (in the immediately succeeding instant), are related by this paccaya.

    In one existence of a being, the rebirth-consciousness is related to the first life-continuum by way of contiguity, and the first life-continuum is again related to the second life-continum; and so on with the rest.

    Now with reference to the Text, "When the second unmoral consciousness arises to the Pure (those of Pure abode, i.e. Suddhavasa), etc.," which is expounded in the Dhamma-Yamaka, the ninth chapter of the Sixth Book of Abhidhamma, we understand that, as he becomes aware of his new body, the first process of thought which occurs to a being in his new life is the process of unmoral thought accompanied by a strong desire to live the new life, with the idea: 'This is mine; this am I; this is Myself." When this process is about to occur, the life-continuum vibrates first for two moments. Next comes the mind-door apprehension, and then follows a series of seven apperceptives, accompanied by a strong desire to live the new life. Thereafter, life-continua begin to flow again.

    In fact, this being[14] does not know anything of his present new life. He lives, reflecting on what he had experienced in the previous existence. The basis of mind, however, is too weak, so that the object also cannot be clearly reflected. The object being thus indistinct, there generally arise only such classes of consciousness as are conjoined with perplexity.

    After two months or so from the time of impregnation, during which period the individual is gradually developing, the controlling powers of the eyes, ears, etc., complete their full development. But there being no light, and so on, in the womb of the mother, the four classes of cognition--visual, auditory, and so on--do not arise. Only the tactile cognition and the mind-cognition arise. The child suffers much pain and distress at every change of the mother's bodily posture, and much more so while he is being born. Even after he has come into the outer world, he has to lie very feebly on his back till the delicate body becomes strong enough (lit., reaches the state of maturity) to bear itself. During this period, he cannot cognize present objects, but his mind generally turns towards the objects of his previous existence. If he comes from the hell-world, he generally presents an unpleasant face, for he still feels what he had experienced in the hell-world. If he comes from the abode of devas, his pleasant face not only shines with smiles, but in its joyous expression of laugh, as it were, he shows his happiness at some thought of the objects of the Deva-world.

    Furthermore, the members of his body steadily become stronger, and his sense-impressions clearer. So he is soon able to play joyfully in his own dear little ways. A happy life is thus begun for him; and he begins to take an interest in his new life. He takes to and imitates his mother's speech. He prattles with her. Thus his senses almost entirely turn to the present world, and all his reflections of the previous life fade away. That is to say, he forgets his previous existence.

    Do all beings forget their previous existences only at this period of life? No, not all beings. Some who are very much oppressed with the pain of conception, forget their previous existences during the period of pregnancy, some at the time of birth, some at the aforesaid period; some during the period of youth, and some in old age. Some extraordinary men do not forget for the whole of their lifetime, and there are even some who are able to reflect two or three previous existences. They are called Jatissarasatta, those gifted with the memory of their previous existences.

    Now, to return to our subject. Though the six-door processes of thought begin to work after the child has been born, yet the six-door processes work themselves out in full action only when the child is able to take up present objects. Thus, in every process of thought, every preceding consciousness that has just ceased is related to every succeeding consciousness that has immediately arisen, by way of contiguity. And this relation of contiguity prevails throughout the whole span of the recurring existences of an individual, right from the untraceable beginning, with unbroken continuity. But only after he has attained the Path of Arahantship and has entered the Khandha-Parinibbana (i.e. the final extinction of the Five Aggregates), does this continuum break, or, more strictly speaking, cease forever.

    Why is anantara so called, and why paccaya? Anantara is so called because it causes such states of phenomena as are similar to its own to succeed in the immediately following instant. Paccaya is so called because it renders help. In the phrase 'similar to its own', the word 'similar' is meant to express similarity in respect of having the faculty of being conscious of an obect. And Sarammanta means a phenomenon which does not occur without the presence of an object. So it has been rendered as 'similar in respect of having the faculty', and so forth.

    Also the phrase "Dhammantarassa-uppadanatthena" expresses the following meaning:-"Though the preceding thought ceases, the conscious faculty of it does not become extinct until it has caused the succeeding thought to arise."

    Here it should be borne in mind that the series of paccaya-dhammas of this relation resembles a series of preceding mothers, and the series of paccayuppanna-dhamma resembles a series of succeeding daughters. This being so, the last dying-thought of an Arahant should also cause the arising of a rebirth-consciousness. But it does not do so, for, at the close of the evolution of existence, all activities of volitions and defilements (Kamma-kilesa) have entirely ceased, and the last dying-thought has reached the final, ultimate quiescence.

    End of the Anantara-Relation.

    5. Samanantara-Paccaya or the Relation of Immediate Contiguity

    The classifications of the paccaya-dhammas and paccayuppanna-dhamma of this relation, are, all of them, the same as those of the anantarapaccaya.

    In what sense is samanantara to be understood? Samanantara is to be understood in the sense of 'thorough immediateness'. How? In a stone pillar, though the groups of matter therein seem to unite into one mass, they are not without the material quality of limitation or space which intervenes between them, for matter is substantial and formative. That is to say, there exists an element of space, called mediary or cavity, between any two units of matter. But it is not so with immaterial qualities. There does not exist any space, mediary or cavity, between the two consecutive groups of mind and mental concomitants. That is to say, they (groups of mind and mental concomitants) are entirely without any mediacy, because the mental state is not substantial and formative. The mediacy between two consecutive groups of mind and mental concomitants, is also not known to the world. So it is thought that mind is permanent, stable, stationary, and immutable. Hence, samanantara' is to be understood in the sense of 'thorough immediateness'.

    Anantarattha has also been explained in the foregoing relation as Attano anantare attasadisassa dhammantarassa uppadanatthena; that is because it causes such states of phenomena as are similar to its own to succeed in the immediately following instant. This being so, some such suggestion as follows might be put forward: at the time of 'sustained cessation'[15] (nirodhasamapatti), the preceding consciousness is that of neither-consciousness-nor-unconsciousness, and the succeeding consciousness is that of the Ariyan Fruit. Between these two classes of consciousness, the total suspension of thought occurs either for one day, or for two, or three... or even for seven days. Also in the abode of unconscious beings, the preceding consciousness is that of decease (cuticitta, the dying-thought) from the previous Kamaloka; and the succeeding one is that of rebirth (patisandhicitta) in the following Kamaloka. Between these two classes of consciousness, the total suspension of thought of the unconscious being occurs for the whole term of life amounting to five hundred kappas or great aeons.

    Hence, is it not correct to say that the two classes of preceding consciousness are without the faculty of causing to arise something similar to themselves in an immediately following instant? The reply to this is: No, they are not without this faculty. The faculty has only been retarded in its operation for a certain extended period, through certain highly cultivated contemplations and resolutions made. When the preceding thoughts cease, they cease together with the power, which they possess, of causing something to arise similar to themselves. And the succeeding thoughts, being unable to arise in continuity at that immediate instant, arise only after the lapse of the aforesaid extent of time. It cannot be rightly said that they (the preceding thoughts) do not possess the faculty of causing to arise something similar to themselves, or that they are not anantara-relations only because of a suspension of operation of the faculty. For, we do not speak of a king's armies when they are not actually in a battle or in the very act of fighting, or while they are roaming about, not being required to fight by the king, who at such times may say, "My men, it is not the proper time for you yet to fight. But you shall fight at such and such a time." We do not then say that they are not armies or that they have no fighting qualities. In precisely the same way, the relation between the two aforesaid preceding thoughts is to be understood.

    Here some might say: 'It has just been said in this relation that both the relating and the related things, being incorporeal qualities having no form whatever and having nothing to do with any material quality of limitation (space) intervening between, are entirely without mediacy or cavity. If this be so, how shall we believe the occurrence at every moment, of the arising and ceasing of consciousness, which has been explained in the arammana-paccaya by the illustration of the sound of a gong and of a violin? We may answer this question by asserting the fact, which is quite obvious in the psychical world, that the various classes of consciousness are in a state of continual flux, i.e., in a continuous succession of change. It has also been explained, in detail, in the essays on Citta Yamaka.

    End of the Samanantara-Relations.

    6. Sahajata-Paccaya or the Relation of coexistence

    The classifications of the paccaya and paccayuppanna-dhammas of this relation will now be dealt with. All coexistent classes of consciousness and their mental concomitants are each mutually termed paccaya and paccayuppanna-dhammas. So also are the mental aggregates of rebirth and the basis of mind, which coexist with rebirth; and so also are the Great Essentials, mutually among themselves. All the material qualities born of Kamma at the moment of rebirth and all the material qualities which are born of mind, during life, at the nascent instant of each momentary state of consciousness (which is capable of producing material quality), are merely termed the paccayuppanna-dhammas, of that coexistent consciousness. All the material qualities derived from the Great Essentials are, however, termed the paccayuppanna-dhammas of the Great Essentials.

    In what sense is sahajata to be understood, and in what sense paccaya? Sahajata is to be understood in the sense of coexistence, and paccaya in the sense of rendering help. Here, coexistence means that when a phenomenon arises, it arises together with its effect; or, in other words, also causes its effect to arise simultaneously. Such is the meaning of coexistence implied here. For example, when the sun rises, it rises together with its heat and light. And when a candle is burning, it burns together with its heat and light. So also, this relating thing, in arising, arises together with related things.

    In this example, the sun is like each of the mental states; the sun's heat like the coexisting mental states; and the sun's light is like the coexisting material qualities. Similarly, the sun is like each of the Great Essentials; its heat, the coexisting Great Essentials; and its light, the coexisting material qualities derived from them. In the example of the candle, it should be understood in a similar way.

    End of the Sahajata-Relation.

    7. Annamanna-Paccaya or the Relation of Reciprocity

    What has been spoken of the paccaya-dhammas in the classifications of the relation of coexistence is here (in this relation) the paccaya as well as the paccayuppanna-dhammas. All states of consciousness and their mental concomitants are, reciprocally, the paccaya and the paccayuppanna- dhammas; so are the coexisting Great Essentials; so are the mental aggregates of rebirth; and so is the basis of mind or heart-base which coexists with the mental aggregates of rebirth.

    As to the sense implied here, it is easy to understand. However, an illustration will not be uninteresting. When three sticks are set upright leaning against one another at their upper ends, each of them depends on, and is depended on by, the other two. As long as one of them remains in such an upright position, so long will all remain in the same position. And, if one of them falls, all will fall at the same time. Exactly so should this relation of reciprocity be understood.

    Here, if any one should assert that the mental properties are not able to arise without consciousness rendering them service as their base, we would acknowledge that this is so. Why? Because the function of knowing is predominant among the functions of contact, and so forth, of the mental properties, and, in the Dhammapada, as expounded by the Omniscient Buddha, 'mind is predominant' (Manopubbangama Dhamma, etc.) And again if anyone holds that consciousness also is not able to arise without the mental properties as a correlative, we will support this view. They (mental properties) are concomitant factors of consciousness; therefore, consciousness also is not able to arise without its accompanying mental properties. In a similar way are the four Great Essentials to be understood. But the mental qualities derived from them should not be counted as concomitant factors, for they are only derivatives. Then are the material qualities of life and those born of food not concomitant factors, seeing that they can exercise, individually, the causal relation of control and that of food? No, they are not. They may be taken as concomitant factors only when the development is in full swing, but not when things are only at the state of genesis. In this relation of reciprocity, the arising of concomitants at the stage of genesis is a necessary factor.

    End of the Annamanna-Relation.

    8. Nissaya Paccaya or the Relation of Dependence

    The relation of dependence is of three kinds: coexistent dependence, basic pre-existent dependence, and basic objective pre-existent dependence.

    Of these, what is the relation of coexistent dependence? The relation of coexistent dependence embraces all those that are already comprised in the relation of coexistence. Hence the classifications of relation and related things ought here to be understood in the same way as those that have already been set out in the section on the relation of coexistence.

    And what is the relation of basic pre-existent dependence? There are six bases--eye, ear, nose, tongue, body and heart. These six bases, during life, are causally related, by way of basic pre-existent dependence, to the seven elements of cognition. The material base itself pre-exists and serves as a standing ground or substratum, and it is therefore called 'basic pre-existent dependence'. Here 'basic' is so called because of its being a standing ground or substratum for mind and mental properties. 'To pre-exist' means to exist beforehand--one thought-moment earlier than its related thing.

    Here the rebirth consciousness arises in dependence upon the heartbasis[16] that coexists with it, for there is no pre-existent physical base at that moment. And the first life-continuum arises in dependence upon the same heart-basis which coexists with the rebirth- consciousness. The second life-continuum arises also in dependence upon the heart-basis which coexists with the first life-continuum, and so on with the rest, that is, the third life-continuum arises in dependence upon the heart-basis that coexists with the second life-continuum, and so on and on, until comes the moment of death. Thus should be understood the 'basic pre-existent dependence' which relates to the two elements of cognition, the element of apprehension and the element of comprehension.

    Just as a violin sounds only when the violin-bow moves across its strings, and not otherwise, so also the five senses awake only when the five kinds of sense-objects enter the five avenues known as 'five bases', and not otherwise.

    The impression is possible only at the static period of the object and of the basis. On account of the impression, the life-continuum vibrates for two moments. And, on account of the vibration of the life- continuum, apprehension occurs. On account of apprehension, the five sense-cognitions are able to arise. Therefore, the five sense-bases (eye, ear, etc.) which have arisen at the nascent instant of the past sub-consciousness, are the 'basic pre-existent dependences' of the five elements of sense-cognition.

    Now, at the time of death all the six bases come into being only at the nascent instant of the seventeenth sub-consciousness, reckoned backward from the dying-consciousness. No new bases occur after that seventeenth sub-consciousness. So, at the time of death, all sub- consciousness, all six-door-process-cognitions and consciousness of decease arise in dependence upon these, their respective bases that came into being together with the seventeenth sub-consciousness which has arisen previously to them. This is the causal relation of 'basic pre- existent dependence'.

    What is the causal relation of 'basic objective pre-existent dependence'? When one is reflecting and holding the view: 'my mind locates itself in dependence upon the matter which is mine, or myself, or my atta', through craving, conceit, and error; or when one is reasoning or speculating thus: 'my mind locates itself in dependence upon matter which is Impermanence, Ill, and No-soul', there arise mind- door cognitions, such as determining, and so forth. During that time, each of the material bases becomes the standing ground for, and also the object of, each of the mind-door cognitions. Therefore, such and such a heart-basis is causally related to such and such a consciousness and its concomitants, by way of basic objective pre-existent dependence. This is the causal relation of 'basic objective pre-existent dependence'. Hence the relation of dependence is of three different kinds.

    Here, the dependence by way of Suttanta should also be mentioned. We know that men, animals, trees, and so forth, stand or rest on the earth; the earth in turn, on the great mass of air; and the air, on the limitless empty space underneath. We also know that men establish themselves in houses; bhikkhus, in viharas or monasteries; devas in celestial mansions; and so on with the whole universe. Thus should we understand that everything is causally related to something else by way of dependence.

    End of Nissaya-Relation.

    9. Upanissaya-Paccaya or the Relation of Sufficing Condition

    The relation of sufficing condition is of three kinds: objective sufficing condition, contiguous sufficing condition and natural sufficing condition. Of these three, the first is the same as objective dominance, and the second as contiguity.

    What is 'natural sufficing condition'? All past, present and future, internal and external, classes of consciousness together with their concomitants, all material qualities, Nibbana and concepts (pannatti), are natural sufficing conditions, severally related, as the case may be, to all the present classes of consciousness and their concomitants.

    Here, the Buddha who passed away and has entered Nibbana, His Dhamma, the Fraternity of His sanctified disciples, and the successions of the recognized Fraternity, are causally related to us, of later generations, by way of natural sufficing condition, for the cultivation of good. In the same way, our forefathers, in their respective capacities as parents, teachers, wise monks and brahmins, eminent philosophers, and powerful and august kings, are also causally related to the succeeding generations by way of natural sufficing condition, either for the cultivation of good or of evil, or for the experience of pleasure or of pain. For which reason,, they established or propounded various laws and sayings, moral and immoral, and also worldly institutions--both for the welfare and otherwise of the succeeding generations. The future generations also follow their paths and adopt their customs by doing acts of charity, by observing the precepts, and so forth, by practising the moral and social laws of the world, by adhering to various religious beliefs, by taking up various kinds of occupations, by studying various branches of arts and science, by governing hamlets, villages and towns, by being agriculturists in the field and on the farm, by digging lakes, ponds and wells, by building houses, by making carriages and carts, by building boats, steamers and ships, and by seeking for and accumulating wealth, such as silver, gold, precious stones, pearls and so forth and so on. Thus the world has developed unceasingly.

    The future Buddha (Metteyya), His Dhamma and His Fraternity are natural sufficing conditions, being causally related to the present generation, for the acquirement of virtues, and the gaining of merit. Supremacy, wealth, power, prosperity--which are to be gained in the future--are also natural sufficing conditions, related to the present generation for the putting forth of efforts of all sorts. The acquirement of happy existence and wealth and the attainment of Path, Fruition and Nibbana, which are to be enjoyed in the future, are also natural sufficing conditions, related to the present generation of men for the development of such forms of merit as charity, virtue and so on.

    With the hope of reaping crops in winter, men till the soil and sow seeds in the rainy season, or they do various kinds of work, which incur labour and intellect, with the hope of getting money upon their completion of the work. Now, the crops to be reaped and the money to be got, are future natural sufficing conditions, related to the acquisition of crops and money. In the same manner, most people in the present life do many good deeds, realizing that they will reap the fruits of their deeds in some life hereafter. In this case, the fruits which will be reaped in future are future natural sufficing conditions, related to the deeds done in the present life. Deeds done before are also past natural sufficing conditions, related to the fruits which are to be reaped in the future. Thus we see that the future natural sufficing condition is as large and wide as the past.

    The living Buddha, His Dhamma, and so on, are present natural sufficing conditions, being related to the present living men, Devas and Brahmas, and so are living parents to living sons and daughters, and so on. The present natural sufficing condition is thus obvious and easy to understand.

    Internal natural sufficing conditions are those that exist in an animate person, such as the Buddha, and so forth. External natural sufficing conditions are conditions, such as lands, mountains, rivers, oceans and so on, which serve as resting places for the existence of life (sentient beings); or such as forests, woods, trees, grasses, grains, beans and so forth; or such as the moon, the sun, the planets, the stars and so on; or such as rain, fire, wind, cold, heat, and so forth, which are useful and advantageous to life in one way or another. All these are the more powerful sufficing conditions, either for the accomplishment of good or for the spreading of evil; either for the enjoyment of pleasures or for the suffering of pains.

    Those with an earnest desire to enter Nibbana in the present life work out the factors of enlightenment. Those with an ardent hope to enter Nibbana in the lives to come when Buddhas will appear fulfil the perfections. Here, Nibbana is the more powerful sufficing condition for the cultivation of these tasks.

    A large variety of concepts or names-and-notions, commonly employed, or found in the Tipitakas of the Buddha, are also sufficing conditions for the understanding of many things.

    In fact, all conditioned things here come to be only when there are present causes or conditions for the same, and not otherwise. And they stand only if there are present causes for their standing; otherwise they do not. Therefore, causes or conditions are needed for their arising as well as for their maintenance. However, Nibbana and concepts are things, unconditioned, without birth and genesis, everlasting and eternal. Therefore, no causes are needed for their arising and maintenance.[17]

    The Moral is causally related to that which is moral by way of sufficing condition. A clear exposition of this is given in the Patthana, where it is said: "Through faith one gives charity, observes the precepts and so on." Similarly, that moral is causally related to immoral--and unspecified[18] or unmoral to unmoral--by way of sufficing condition is made clear by these expositions: "Through lust one commits murder, theft and so on," and "Through suitable climate and food, one enjoys physical health and so forth." The Moral is also causally related to that which is immoral by way of more powerful sufficing condition. This is to be understood from the following exposition: "One may give charity, and thereupon exalt oneself and revile others. In the same manner, having observed the precepts, having attained concentration of mind, and having acquired learning, one may exalt oneself and belittle others."

    The Moral is also causally related to that which is unmoral by way of more powerful sufficing condition. All good deeds done in the four planes (these four planes are the spheres of Kama, Rupa, Arupa and Lokuttara), and all actions connected with doing good, are related, by way of more powerful sufficing condition, to unmorals of the resultant kind, producible at a remote period. Those who practise for the Perfection of charity, suffer much physical and mental pain. Similarly, those who practise for such other Perfections (Paramita) as of morality, abnegation, wisdom, perseverance, patience, sincerity, resolution, love, and resignation, suffer the same. It is likewise with those who practise the course of Jhana and Magga ("supernormal thought" and the Path).

    Immorals are also causally related, by way of more powerful sufficing condition, to morals. For instance, some on this earth, having done wrong, repent their deeds and better themselves to shun all such evil deeds, by cultivating such moral acts as giving charity, observing the precepts, practising Jhanas and Maggas. Thus the evil deeds they have done are related, by way of stronger sufficing condition, to the moral acts they cultivate later.

    Immorals are also causally related, by way of more powerful sufficing condition, to unmorals. For instance, many people in this world, having been guilty of evil deeds, are destined to fall into one of the four planes of misery, and undergo pains of suffering which prevail there. Even in the present life, some, through their own misdeeds or the misdeeds of others, have to bear a great deal of distress. Some, however, enjoy a large variety of pleasures with the money they earn by their misconduct. There are also many who suffer much on account of lust, hate, error, conceit, and so forth.

    Unmorals are also causally related by way of more powerful sufficing condition to morals. Having become possessed of great wealth, one gives charity, practises for the perfection of good morals, fosters wisdom, and practises the religious exercises in a suitable place, such as a monastery, a hollow place, a cave, a tree, a forest, a hill, or a village, where the climate is agreeable and food is available.

    Unmorals are also causally related by way of more powerful sufficing conditions to immorals. Being equipped with eyes, many evils are born of sight within oneself. A similar explanation applies to our equipment with ears, etc.; so also as regards hands, legs, swords, arms, etc. It is thus that sufficing condition is of three kinds.

    Sufficing condition by way of Suttanta,[19] may also be mentioned here. It is found in many such pasages in the Pitakas as, "through intercourse with virtuous friends", "through association with sinful companions", "by living in the village", "by dwelling in the forest", and so forth. In short, the five cosmic orders (Panca-niyamadhamma) are the stronger sufficing conditions relating to the three worlds--the animate world, the inanimate world, and the world of space, to go on unceasingly through aeons of time. This also has been expounded at length by us in the Niyamadipani[20].

    Why is arammanupanissaya so called? It is so called because the dominant object acts as a main basis for subjects (arammanika).

    Why is anatarupanissaya so called? It is so called because the preceding consciousness acts as a main basis for the arising of its immediate succeeding consciousness. The preceding consciousness is just like the mother, and the succeeding one, the son. Here, just as the mother gives birth to the son who owes his existence to her in particular, so also the preceding consciousness gives birth to the succeeding one which owes its existence particularly to its predecessor.

    Why is pakatupanissaya so called? It is so called because it is naturally known to the wise as a distinct sufficing condition. Here, something further requires to be said. The influence of a sufficing condition in contiguity pervades only its immediate successor, but that of a natural sufficing condition can pervade many remote ones. Therefore, what in this present life has been seen, heard, smelt, tasted, touched and experienced in days, months, years, long gone by, takes form again at the mind-door, even after a lapse of a hundred years, if a sufficient cause is available. And so people remember their past, and can utter such expressions as "I saw it before", "I heard it before", and so on. These beings, whose birth is apparitional[21], also remember their former existences; likewise, some among men, who are gifted with the memory of their former existences, can do so. If one out of a hundred thousand objects experienced before be met with afterwards, many or, it may be, all of them reappear in the process of thought.

    End of the Upanissaya-Relation.

    10. Purejata-Paccaya or the Relation of Pre-Existence

    The relation of pre-existence is of three kinds: basic pre-existence, objective pre-existence, and basic objective pre-existence.

    Of these, the first and the last have already been dealt with under the heading of Nissaya in the foregoing section on the Nissaya-relation.

    Objective pre-existence is the name given to the present eighteen, kinds of material qualities of the determined class (nipphanna). Of these, the present five objects (visible form, sound, and so forth) are causally related, always by way of objective pre-existence, to those thoughts which are capable of taking part in the five-door processes. Just as the sound of the violin only arises when it is played with a bow, and the sounding necessitates the pre-existence of both the violin strings and the violin bow, so also those thoughts, which take part in the five-door processes, spring into being owing to the presentation of the five objects of sense at the five doors, which are no other than the five bases. The presentation is possible only when the door and the object are in their static stages. Those five objects not only present themselves at the five doors of the five senses at that static period, but they also present themselves at the mind-door. On this account, the life-continuum vibrates for two moments, and then ceases; and the cessation of the life-continuum gives rise to a consciousness-series. This being so, the consciousness-series in any process cannot arise without the pre-existence of the objects and of the bases. The eighteen kinds of determined material qualities are either past, because they have ceased, or future, because they have not yet arisen, or present, inasmuch as they are still existing. All of them, without distinction, may be objects of the mind-door cognitions. But, among them, only the present objects act as objective pre-existence. And if a thing in any distant place, or concealed from sight, itself existing, becomes an object of mind, it also may be called a present object.

    End of the Purejata-Relation.

    11. Pacchajata-Paccaya or the Relation of Post-Existence

    Every posterior consciousness that springs into being, causally relates to the still existing group of prior corporeal qualities born of the Four Origins[22] (kamma, citta, utu, ahara), by way of post-existence, in helping them to develop and thrive. For example, the rainwater that falls every subsequent year, renders service by way of post-existence to such vegetation as has grown up in previous years, in promoting its growth and development.

    Here, by "every posterior consciousness" are meant all classes of consciousness beginning from the first life-continuum to the final dying-thought. And, by "prior corporeal qualities" are meant all corporeal qualities born of Four Origins starting from the group of material qualities born of kamma, which coexist with the rebirth-conception.

    The fifteen states of the life-continuum starting serially from the first life-continuum which has arisen after the rebirth-conception, causally relate by way of post-existence to the group of material qualities born of kamma, which coexist with the rebirth-conception. As to the rebirth-conception, it cannot be a causal relation by way of post-existence, for it coexists with the group of corporeal qualities born of kamma. Similarly, the sixteenth life-continuum cannot become a causal relation by way of post-existence, for it comes into existence only when that group of material qualities reaches the stage of dissolution. Therefore, these are "the fifteen states of the life-continuum" which causally relate as above.

    At the static moment of the rebirth-conception, there spring up two groups of material qualities, born of kamma, and born of temperature;[23] and the same at the arrested moment. But at the nascent moment of the first life-continuum, three groups spring up: that born of kamma, that born of temperature, and that born of mind. When oja (the nutritive essence) of the food eaten, spreads all through the body, the corporeal nutritive essence absorbs the stimulant, and produces a group of material qualities. From that time onward, the groups produced by the Four Origins spring up incessantly, like the flame of a burning lamp. Leaving out the nascent moment, so long as these groups stand at their static stage, every one of the posterior fifteen classes of consciousness renders them help by way of post-existence.

    Vuddhivirulhiya means "for the gradual development and progress of the series of corporeal qualities born of the Four Origins." Therefore, if they, the four kinds of corporeal groups, are repeatedly related by (lit., do repeatedly obtain) the causal relation of post-existence, then they leave behind them, when their physical life-term has expired, a powerful energy--an energy adequate to produce the development, progress and prosperity of the subsequent series of groups.

    End of the Pacchajata-Relation.

    12. Asevana-Paccaya or the Relation of Habitual Recurrence

    The forty-seven kinds of mundane apperceptions comprising the twelve classes of immoral consciousness, the seventeen mundane classes of moral consciousness, and the eighteen classes of inoperative consciousness (obtained by excluding the two classes of consciousness, called "turning towards", avajjana, from the twenty), are here termed the causal relation of habitual recurrence. When any one of these arrives at the apperceptional process (i.e., the sequence of seven similar states of consciousness in a process of thought) every preceding apperception causally relates itself by way of habitual recurrence to every succeeding apperception. The related things, paccayuppanna-dhammas, comprise the succeeding apperceptions as stated above, as well as the Four Paths.

    In what sense is the term asevana to be understood? It is to be understood in the sense of habituating by constant repetition or of causing in its paccayuppanna-dhamma to accept its inspiration, for them to gain greater and greater proficiency, energy and force. Here Pagunabhava means proficiency of the succeeding apperceptional thoughts in their apperceptive functions and stages; just as one who reads a lesson many times becomes more proficient with each new reading.

    Parivaso literally means perfuming, or inspiring. Just as a silk cloth is perfumed with sweet scents, so also is the body of thought, so to speak, perfumed, or inspired, with lust, hate, and so forth; or with disinterestedness (arajjana), amity (adussana), and so on. Although the preceding apperception ceases, its apperceptional force does not cease; that is, its force pervades the succeeding thought. Therefore, every succeeding apperception, on coming into existence, becomes more vigorous on account of the former"s habituation. Thus the immediate preceding thought habituates or causes its immediate successor to accept its habituation. However, the process of habitual recurrence usually ceases at the seventh thought, after which, either resultant thought-moments of retention follow, or subsidence into the life-continuum takes place.

    Here, habitual recurrence, as dealt with in the Suttanta, ought to be mentioned also. Many passages are to be found in several parts of the Sutta Pitaka. Such are: Satipatthanam bhaveti: "one cultivates the earnest applications in mindfulness"; Sammappadhanam bhaveti: "one cultivates the supreme effort"; Sati-sambojjhangam bhaveti: "one cultivates mindfulness, a factor of Enlightenment"; Dhammavicaya-sambojjhangam bhaveti: "one cultivates the "investigation of truth," a factor of Enlightenment"; Sammaditthim bhaveti: "one cultivates the right view"; Sammasankappam bhaveti: "one cultivates right aspiration". and so on. In these passages, by "bhaveti" is meant, to repeat the effort either for one day, or for seven days, or for one month, or for seven months, or for one year, or for seven years.

    Moral and immoral actions, which have been repeatedly performed or cultivated, or many times done in former existences, causally relate by way of habitual recurrence to moral and immoral actions of the present existence for their greater improvement and worsening respectively.

    The relation which effects the improvement and the worsening respectively of such moral and immoral actions, at some other distant time or in some future existence, is called sufficing condition, but the one which effects this only during the apperceptional process is called habitual recurrence.

    In this world, there are clearly to be seen always many incidental results or consequences following upon great achievements in art, science, literature, and so forth, which have been carried out in thought, word, and deed, continuously, repeatedly and incessantly.

    As such a relation of habitual recurrence is found among all transient phenomena, manly zeal and effort, exerted for a long period of time, have developed to such a high degree that many great and difficult labours have reached complete accomplishment and that even Buddhahood has been attained.

    End of Asevana-Relation.

    13. Kamma-Paccaya or the Relationship of Kamma

    The relation of kamma is of two kinds: coexistent kamma and asynchronous kamma.

    Of these two, all volitions, moral, immoral, and unmoral, which consist of three time-phases, constitute the causal relation of coexistent kamma. Their related things are: All classes of consciousness and their mental concomitants in coexistence with volition; material qualities born of kamma, which arise simultaneously with the rebirth-conception, and material qualities produced by mind during the term of life.

    Past moral and immoral volitions constitute the causal relation of asynchronous kamma. Their related things are the thirty-seven classes of mundane resultant consciousness and their mental concomitants, and all the material qualities born of kamma.

    Why is kamma so called? It is so called on account of its peculiar function. This peculiar function is nothing but volition (or will) itself, and it dominates every action. When any action of thought, word, or body, takes place, volition (or will) determines, fashions, or causes its concomitants to perform their respective functions simultaneously. For this reason, volition is said to be predominant in all actions. Thus kamma is so called on account of its peculiar function. Or, to define it in another way, kamma is that by which creatures do (or act). What do they do then? They do physical work, vocal work, and mental work. Here, by "physical work" is meant standing, sitting, and so forth; stepping forward and backward, and so on; and even the opening and the shutting of the eye-lids. Vocal work means producing vocal sounds. Mental work means thinking wisely or badly, and, in short, the functions of seeing, hearing, and so forth, with the five senses. Thus all the actions of beings are determined by this volition. Therefore it is called kamma.

    Sahajata is that which comes into being simultaneously with its related things. Sahajatakamma is a coexistent thing as well as a kamma. Sahajatakamma-paccaya is a causal relation standing (to its effects) by way of coexistent kamma.

    Nanakkhanikam is a thing differing in point of time from its effects. That is to say, the time when the volition arises is one, and the time when its effects take place is another; or, in other words, the volition is asynchronous. Hence asynchronous volition is a volition that differs in point of time from its effects. So Nanakkhanikakammapaccaya is a causal relation standing (to its effects) by way of asynchronous kamma. The volition which coexists with the Ariyan Path, only at the moment of its ceasing, immediately produces its effect, and so it also is asynchronous.

    Here, a moral volition such as predominates in charity, for instance, is causally related to its coexistent mind and mental qualities, together with the material qualities produced by the same mind, by way of coexistent kamma. It is also causally related, by way of asynchronous kamma, to the resultant aggregates of mind and material qualities born of that kamma, which will be brought into existence at a distant period in the future. Thus a volition, which is transmuted into a course of action entailing moral and immoral consequences, is causally related to its related things by way of two such different relations at two different times.

    In this asynchronous kamma relation, the kamma signifies quite a peculiar energy. It does not cease though the volition ceases, but latently follows the sequences of mind. As soon as it obtains a favourable opportunity, it takes effect immediately after the dying-thought has ceased, by transmuting itself into the form of an individval in the immediately following existence. But, if it does not obtain any favourable opportunity, it remains in the same latent mode for many hundreds of existences. If it obtains a favourable opportunity, then what is called "sublime kamma" takes effect, upon the next existence in the Brahma-loka, by transmuting itself into the form of a Brahma-deva, and it is so matured that it exhausts itself at the end of this second existence, and does not go any further.

    End of Kamma-Relation.

    14. Vipaka-Paccaya or the Relation of Effect

    Thirty-six classes of resultant consciousness and their concomitants are the relation of effect. As they are mutually related to one another, the related things embrace all of them, as well as the material qualities born of kamma at the time of conception, and those produced by the resultant consciousness during life.

    In what sense is vipaka applied? It is applied in the sense of vipaccana, which means a change of state from infancy or youth to maturity. Whose tenderness and maturity are meant? What is meant of the former is the infancy of the past volition, which is known as asynchronous kamma. By maturity, also, is meant the maturity of the same kamma.

    Here, it should be understood that each volition has four avatthas, or time-phases--cetanavattha, or the genesis of volition; kammavattha, or the continuance of volition; nimittavattha, or the representation of volition, and vipakavattha, or the final result. Here, although the volition itself ceases, its peculiar function does not cease, but latently follows the series of thought. This is called kammavattha, or the continuance of volition.

    When it obtains a favourable opportunity for fruition, the kamma represents itself to the person about to die. That is to say, he himself feels as if he were giving charity, or observing the precepts, or perhaps killing some creatures. If this kamma fails to represent itself, a symbol of it is represented. That is to say, he himself feels as if he were in possession of the offerings, the gifts, the weapons, and so on; or any thing with which he had committed such kamma in the past. Or, sometimes, there is represented to him the sign of the next existence where he is destined to open his new life. That is to say, such objects as the abodes or palaces of the Devas, or the fires of the Niraya-worlds, or what-not, which--as it will be his lot to obtain, or to experience, such in the existence immediately following--enter the fields of presentation through the six doors. These are called nimittavattha, the representation, of the volition.

    Now, how are we to understand the vipakavattha? If a person dies with his attention fixed upon one of these three classes of objects, either on the kamma itself or on the sign of it, or on the sign of destiny, it is said that kamma has effected itself, or has come to fruition, in the immediately new existence. It has transmuted itself into a personality, and appears, so to speak, in the form of a being in the new existence. This is called the vipakavattha, or the final result. Here, in the first three avatthas, the volition is said to be in the state of infancy or youth.[24] The last one shows that the volition has arrived in maturity, and can effect itself. Therefore, as has been said, vipaccana means a change of state from infancy or youth to maturity. Thus vipaka is the name assigned to the states of consciousness and their concomitants, which are the results of the volitions, or to the matured volitions themselves.

    Just as mangoes are very soft and delicate when they are ripe, so also the resultant states are very tranquil, since they are inactive and have no stimulus. They are so tranquil that the objects of subconsciousness are always dim and obscure. On reviving from subconsciousness, one has no consciousness of what its object was. For this reason, there is no possibility of occurrence of a process of thought, which can reflect the object of the sub-consciousness thus: "Such and such an object has been met with in the past existence"--although, in sleep at night, the sub-consciousness takes for its object one of the three classes of objects (kamma, the symbols of kamma, and the symbols of one"s future destiny), which had been experienced before, at the time of approaching death, in the immediately preceding existence. Hence, it is, that one knows nothing about any object from a past existence, either in sleep or in waking. Thus the mutual relationship by way of inactivity, non-stimulation, and tranquillity, is termed the function of Vipaka.

    End of Vipaka-Relation.

    15. Ahara-Paccaya or the Relation of Food

    The relation of food is of two kinds: material and immaterial. Of these, material food connotes the nutritive essence (or what is called edible food), which again is subdivided into two kinds: internal and external.

    All the natural qualities born of the Four Causes,[25] pertaining to those creatures who live on edible food, are here the paccayuppanna-dhammas related to the two kinds of material food.

    As to immaterial food, it is of three different kinds: contact, volitional activity of mind, and consciousness. These kinds of immaterial food, or paccaya dhammas are causally related to the coexistent properties, both mental and material, which are their corresponding paccayuppanna-dhamma.

    In what sense is ahara to be understood? Ahara is to be understood in the sense of 'holding up strongly', which means "causing to exist firmly". That is to say, a relating thing nourishes its related thing so as to enable it to endure long, to develop, to flourish, and to thrive, by means of support. Though the causal relation of food possesses a producing power, the power of support is predominant here.

    Here, the two material foods are called ahara, because they strongly hold up the group of internal material qualities born of the Four Causes, by nourishing them so that they may exist firmly, endure long, and reach uncurtailed the bounds (or limits) of their life-term.

    Contact is an ahara also, because it strongly holds up its coexistent things, and enables them to stand firmly and endure long by nourishing them with the essence extracted from desirable and undesirable objects. Volitional activity of mind, or (in a word) will, is an ahara in that it furnishes courage for the execution of deeds, words, and thoughts. And consciousness is an ahara also, inasmuch as it predominates in all thinking about an object. These three immaterial foods, in supplying nourishment to the coexistent mentals, also affect the coexistent materials.

    Ahara here may also be explained after the Suttanta method. Just as birds, ascertaining where their quarters are, fly with their wings through the air from tree to tree and from wood to wood, and peck at fruits with their beaks, thus sustaining themselves through their whole life, so also beings--with the six classes of consciousness, ascertaining objects; with the six kinds of volitional activity of mind, persevering to get something as an object; and with the six kinds of contact, making the essence of objects appear--either enjoy pleasure or suffer pain. Or, solely with the six classes of consciousness, comprehending objects, they avail themselves of forming, or becoming, body and mind. Or, solely with the contacts, making objects appear in order that feelings may be aroused through the same, they cultivate craving. Or, committing various kinds of deeds through craving accompanied by volitions, they migrate (so to speak) from existence to existence. Thus should be understood how extensive the functioning of the different foods is.

    End of the Ahara-Relation.

    16. Indriya-Paccaya or the Relation of Control

    The relation of control is of three kinds, namely coexistence, pre-existence and physical life.

    Of these, the paccaya-dhammas of the first kind[26] are the fifteen coexistent controls, namely, psychic life, consciousness, pleasure, pain, joy, grief, hedonic indifference, faith, energy, mindfulness, concentration, reason, the thought: "I-shall-come-to-know-the-unknown (Nibbana)", the thought:"I-know", and the thought: "I-have-known". The paccayuppanna-dhammas are their coexistent properties, both mental and material.

    The paccaya-dhammas of the second kind are the five sentient organs: the eye, the ear, the nose, the tongue and the body. The paccayupanna-dhammas are the five senses together with their concomitants.

    The paccaya-dhammas of the third kind is only one, namely, physical life itself. And all kamma-born material qualities, with the exception of physical life itself, are its paccayuppanna-dhammas.

    In what sense is indriya to be understood? It is to be understood in the sense of "exercising control over". Over what does it exercise control? It exercises control over its paccayuppanna-dhammas. In what function? In their respective functions. Psychic life exercises control over its coexistent mental properties in infusing life, that is, in the matter of their prolongation by continuity. Consciousness exercises control in the matter of thinking about an object. The functioning of the rest has been explained in our recent Indriya-Yamaka-Dipani.

    Here, some may put a question like this: "Why are the two sexes[27] --the female and the male--which are comprised in the category of controls, not taken in this relation as paccaya-dhammas?" The answer is: Because they have none of the functions of a paccaya. A paccaya has three kinds of functioning, namely, producing, supporting and maintaining. Here, if A is causally related to B in B"s arising, A"s functioning is said to be that of producing, for had A not occurred, the arising of B would have been impossible. The functioning of Anantara may be instanced here. Again, if A is causally related to B in B"s existence, development and prosperity, A"s functioning is said to be that of supporting, for if A did not happen B would not stand, develop and flourish. The relation of Pacchajata will serve here as an example. And, if A is causally related to B in B"s prolongation by continuity, A"s functioning is said to be that of maintaining, for if A did not exist, B"s prolongation would be hampered, and its continuity would also be broken. The functioning of physical life will illustrate this.

    Now, the two sexes do not execute any one of the said three functions. Therefore, they are not taken as a paccaya-dhamma in this relation of control. If this be so, must they still be called controls? Yes, they must be called controls. Why? Because they have something of controlling power. They control the body in its sexual structure (linga), in its appearance (nimitta), in its characters (kutta), and in its outward dispositions (akappa). Therefore, at the period of conception, if the female sex is produced in a being, all its personality, i.e. the five aggregates produced by the Four Causes (kamma, and so forth), tends towards femininity. The whole body, indeed, displays nothing but the feminine structure, the feminine appearance, the feminine character, and the feminine outward disposition. Here, neither does the female sex produce those qualities, nor support, nor maintain them. But, in fact, when the body (i e. the five aggregates) has come into existence, the sex exercises control over it as if it (sex) were giving it the order to become so and so. All the aggregates also become in conformity with the sex, and not out of conformity. Such is the controlling power of the female sex in the feminine structure. In the same manner the male sex exercises control in the masculine structure. Thus the two sexes have controlling functions in the structures, hence they may"be called controls.

    With regard to the heart-basis, though it acts as a basis for the two elements of mind-cognition, it does not control them in any way. For, whether the heart is limpid or not, the elements of mind-cognition in a person of well-trained mind never conform to it.

    End of the Indriya-Relation.

    17. Jhana-Paccaya or the Relation Of Jhana

    The seven constituents of jhana are the paccaya-dhammas in the relation of jhana. They are:-- vitakka (initial application), vicara (sustaine application), piti (pleasurable interest, somanassa (joy), domanassa (grief), upekkha (hedonic indifference) and ekaggata (concentration in the sense of capacity to individualise). All classes of consciousness (with the exception of the five senses), their concomitants and material qualities in coexistence with the seven constituents, are the paccayuppanna-dhammas here.

    In what sense is jhana to be understood? Jhana is to be understood in the sense of closely viewing or actively looking at; that is to say, going close to the object and looking at it mentally. Just as an archer--who from a distance is able to send or thrust an arrow into the bull"s eye of a small target--holding the arrow firmly in his hand, making it steady, directing it towards the mark, keeping the target in view, and attentively looking, or rather aiming at it, sends the arrow through the bull"s eye or thrusts it into the latter, so also, in speaking of a yogi or one who practises jhana, we must say that he, directing his mind towards the object, making it steadfast, and keeping the kasina-object in view, thrusts his mind into it by means of these seven constituents of jhana. Thus, by closely viewing them, a person carries out his action of body, of word, and mind, without failure. Here, "action of body" means going forward and backward and so forth; "action of word" means making vocal expressions, such as the sounds of alphabets, words and so forth; action of mind" means being conscious of Objects of any kind. So no deed, such as giving charity or taking life can be executed by a feeble mind lacking the necessary constituents of jhana. It is the same with all moral and immoral deeds

    To have a clear understanding of its meaning the salient characteristic mark of each constituent of jhana should be separately explained. Vitakka has the characteristic mark of directing the concomitant properties towards the object, and it, therefore, fixes the mind firmly to the object. Vicara has the characteristic mark of reviewing the object over and over, and it attaches the mind firmly to the object. Piti has the characteristic mark of creating interest in the object, and makes the mind happy and content with it. The three kinds of vedana, i.e. joy, grief and indifference, have the characteristic marks of feeling the object, and they also fasten the mind as regards experiencing the essence of desirable, undesirable and neutral objects. Ekaggata has the characteristic mark of concentration and it also keeps the mind steadfastly fixed on the object.

    End of the Jhana-Relation.

    18. Magga-Paccaya or the Relation of Path

    The twelve path-constituents are the paccaya-dhammas in this relation of Magga. They are: -- Right Views, Right Aspiration, Right Speech, Right Action, Right Livelihood, Right Endeavour, Right Mindfulness, Right Concentration, Wrong Views, Wrong Aspiration, Wrong Endeavour, and Wrong Concentration. There are, however, no distinct mental properties to which to assign the terms Wrong Speech, Wrong Action and Wrong Livelihood. These are but other names for the four immoral aggregates (akusala-khandha) which appear under the names of lying and so forth. Therefore they are not taken as distinct path-constituents. All classes of consciousness and mental concomitants conditioned by hetu, and all material qualities in coexistence with the hetu-conditioned mind, are paccayuppanna-dhammas.

    In what sense is magga to be understood? It is to be understood in the sense of path, that is, as the means of reaching the realm of misfortune or the realm of Nibbana. The eight path-constituents (Right Views, and so on) lead to Nibbana. The four wrong path-constituents lead to the realm of misfortune.

    Now the functioning of jhana is to make the mind straight, steadfast, and ecstatic[28] in the object. "Ecstatic mind" means mind that sinks into the kasina-object, and so forth, like a fish in deep water. The functioning of magga is to make kammic volition in the "way-in" to the circle of existence and bhavanic volition in the "way-out" of the circle, straight and steadfast, issue in a course of action, develop, flourish and prosper, and reach a higher plane. This is the distinction between the two relations.

    Here, the kammic volition which can produce a rebirth--since it has worked out in moral and immoral acts such as taking life, and so forth is spoken of as kammapathapatta. And the bhavanic volition, which arrives at the higher stages, that is, proceeds from the sensuous stage to the transcendental one, through a succession of higher and higher stages, by the power of an orderly succession of training-practices (bhavananukamma), even within the brief period occupied by one bodily posture, is spoken of as bhummantarapatta.

    To understand this relation, the characteristic mark of each of the path-constituents should also be separately explained in the manner shown in the Relation of Jhana.

    End of the Magga-Relation.

    19. Sampayutta-Relation or the Relation of Association

    The relations of association and dissociation form a pair. So also do the relations of presence and absence, and of abeyance and continuance. These three pairs of relations are not special ones. They are only mentioned to show that, in the foregoing relations, some paccaya-dhammas causally relate themselves to their paccayuppanna-dhammas, by association, and others by dissociation; some by presence and others by absence; some by abeyance and others by continuance.

    Here also in such passages as: "Atthi ti kho, kaccana, ayam eko anto; natthi ti kho dutiyo anto ti",[29] the words atthi and natthi are meant to indicate the heretical views of eternalism and annihilationism. Therefore, in order to prevent such interpretations, the last pair of relations is mentioned.

    All classes of consciousness and mental properties mutually relate themselves to one another by way of association. In what sense is "sampayutta" to be understood? "Sampayutta" is to be understood in the sense of association, or through coalescence, by the four associative means, namely, simultaneous arising, synchronous cessation, mono-basic, and mono-object. Here, by ekibhavam gato (or coalescence), it is meant that the consciousness of sight coalesces with its seven mental properties so thoroughly that they all are unitedly spoken of as sight. These eight mental states are no longer spoken of by their special names, for it is indeed a difficult matter to know them separately. The same explanation applies to the other classes of consciousness.

    End of the Sampayutta-Relation.

    20. Vipayutta-Paccaya or the Relation of Dissociation

    The relation of dissociation is of four different kinds, namely coexistence, basic pre-existence, basic objective pre-existence, and post-existence. Of these four, the paccaya and paccayuppanna-dhammas of the coexistent dissociation may be either mental or physical in accordance with what has been shown in the relation of coexistence. Therefore a mental is causally related to a physical by way of coexistent dissociation, and vice versa. A "mental" here, when spoken of as a paccaya, means the four mental aggregates, namely, sensation, perception, mental functionings and, consciousness, during life; and a "physical" when spoken of as paccayuppanna, means material qualities produced by mind. Again a "physical" when spoken of as a paccaya, means the heart-basis at the moment of conception, and a "mental", when spoken of as paccayuppanna means the four mental aggregates belonging to rebirth.

    The remaining three kinds of dissociation have already been explained.

    End of the Vippayutta-Relation.

    21. Atthi-Paccaya or the Relation of Presence

    The relation of presence is of seven different kinds, namely coexistence, basic pre-existence, objective pre-existence, basic objective pre-existence, post-existence, material food, and physical life-control.

    Of these, the relation of coexistent presence is that of mere coexistence. A similar interpretation should be made for the remaining six, for which the equivalent relations that have already been explained are to be referred to. The classifications of relating and related things have already been dealt with above in each of the relations concerned.

    Why is atthi-paccaya so called? Atthi-paccaya is so called because it causally relates itself to its effect by being present in the three phases of time called khana.

    End of the Atthi-Relation.

    22. Natthi-Paccaya or the Relation of Abeyance
    23. Vigata-Paccaya or the Relation of Absence
    24. Avigata-Paccaya or the Relation of Continuance

    The relation of absence is entirely the relation of contiguity; so is the relation of abeyance. The relation of continuance is also the same as the relation of presence. The words "atthi" and "avigata" have the same meaning; so also the words "natthi" and "vigata".

    End of the Natthi-, the Vigata-, and the Avigata-Relation.

    25. Paccaya-Sabhago or the Syhthesis of Relations

    The synthesis of relations will now be stated.

    The relation of sahajata (coexistence) may be specified as being of fifteen kinds, i.e. four superior sahajatas, four medium sahajatas, and seven inferior sahajatas. The four superior sahajatas comprise ordinary sahajata, sahajatanissaya (dependence-in-coexistence), sahajatatthi (coexistent presence), and sahajata-avigata (coexistent continuance). The four medium sahajatas comprise annamanna (reciprocity), vipaka (effect), sampayutta (association), and sahajata-vippayutta (coexistent dissociation). The seven inferior sahajata comprise hetu (condition), sahajata-dhipati (coexistent dominance), sahajata-kamma (coexistent kamma), sahajathara (coexistent food), sahajatindriya (coexistent control), jhana, and magga (way).

    Rupahara, or material food is of three kinds: rupahara (ordinary material food), rupaharatthi, and rupaharavigata.

    Rupa-jivitindriya, or physical life-control is of three kinds: rupa-jivitindriya, jivitindriyatthi, and rupa-jivitindriya-avigata.

    The relation of purejata (pre-existence) may be specified as seventeen kinds: six vatthu-purejatas (basic pre-existence), six arammana-purejatas (objective pre-existence), and five vattharammana-purejatas (basic objective pre-existence). Of these, the six vatthu-purejatas are vatthu-purejata, vatthupurejatanissaya, vatthu-purejatindriya, vatthu-purejata-vippayutta, vatthu-purejatatthi, and vatthu-purejata-avigata. The six arammana-purejatas are: arammana-purejata, some arammana, some arammanadhipati, some arammana-arammanupanissaya, arammana-purejatatthi, and arammana-purejata-avigata. The words "kinci" and "koci" in kinci arammanam and so forth are used in order to take in only the present nipphanna-rupas (material qualities determined by kamma and environments). The five vattharammana-purejata are vattharammana-purejata, vattharammanapurejata-nissaya, vattharammana-purejata-vippayutta, vattharammana-purejatatthi, and vattharammana-purejata-avigata.

    The relation of pacchajata or post-existence may be specified as four kinds: pacchajata, pacchajata-vippayutta, pacchajatatthi, and pacchajata-avigata.

    The relation of anantara (contiguity) is of seven kinds: anantara, samanantara, anantarapanissaya, asevana, anatara-kamma, natthi, and vigata. Of these, anantara kamma is the volition which appertains to the Ariyan Path. It produces its effect, i.e. the Ariyan Fruit, immediately after it ceases.

    There are five relations which do not enter into any specification. These are: the remaining arammana, the remaining arammanadhipati, the remaining arammanupanissaya, all pakatupanissaya, and the remaining kind of kamma which is asynchronous kamma.

    Thus, the relations expounded in the Great Treatise (Patthana) are altogether fifty-four kinds in all.

    Of these relations, all species of purejata, all species of pacchajata, material food, and physical life-control are present relations. All species of anantara and of nanakkhanika kamma are past relations. Omitting Nibbana and term-and-concept, pannatti--the relations of arammana and pakatupanissaya may be classified under the three periods of time: past, present and future. But Nibbana and term-and-concept are always outside time.

    These two Dhammas--Nibbana and pannatti (concept)--are both termed appaccaya (void of causal relation), asankhata (unconditioned).[30] Why? Because they are absolutely void of Becoming. Those things or phenomena which have birth or genesis are termed sappaccaya (related things), sankhata (conditioned things), and paticcasamuppannas (things arising from a conjuncture of circumstances). Hence those two dhammas, being void of becoming and happening, are truly to be termed appaccayas and asankhatas.

    Among things related and conditioned, there is not a single phenomenon which is permanent, lasting, eternal and unchangeable. In fact, all are impermanent, since they are liable to dissolution. Why? Because, in coming into existence, they are related to some causes, and their causes are also not permanent.

    Are not Nibbana and concept paccaya-dhammas or relating things? Are they not permanent and lasting? Yes, they are so, but no phenomenon happens entirely through Nibbana or concept alone as sole cause. Phenomena happen through, or are produced by, many causes which are not permanent and lasting.

    Those things which are not permanent are always distressing and hurtful to beings with the three kinds of afflictions. Therefore, they are looked upon as ill by reason of their being dreadful. Here the three kinds of afflictions are "dukkha-dukkhata" (ill due to suffering), "sankhara-dukkhata" (ill due to conditioning), and "viparinama-dukkhata" (ill due to changeability). All things are impermanent, and are dissolving at every moment, even while occupying one posture.[31] Therefore, how can there be any essential self or core in creatures and persons, even though, all their life through, they imagine themselves to be permanent? Everything is also subject to ill. Therefore, how can there be any essential self or core in creatures and persons who are under the oppression of ills, and who nevertheless yearn for happiness? Hence all things are void of self by reason of the absence of a core.

    To sum up. By expounding the twenty-four relations, the Buddha reveals the following facts: all conditioned things owe their happenings and becomings or existence to causes and conditions, and none to the mere desire or will or command of creatures. And among all the things subject to causes and conditions, there is not one that comes into being through few causes; they arise, indeed, only through many. Therefore, this exposition reaches its culminating point in revealing the doctrine of No-self or No-soul.

    End of the Synthesis of Relations.

    26. Paccaya-Ghatananaya or the Synchrony of Relations.

    The synchrony of relations will now be stated.

    The concurrence of causal relations in one related thing is called synchrony of relations or paccaya-ghatana. All phenomena are called sa-paccaya (related to causes), sankhata (conditioned by causes), and paticcasamuppanna (arising from a conjuncture of circumstances), because in arising and in standing they coexist with, or have, or are conditioned by, these twenty-four causal relations. What then are those phenomena? They are: one hundred and twenty-one classes of consciousness, fifty-two kinds of mental properties, and twenty-eight kinds of material qualities.

    Of these, the one hundred and twenty-one classes of consciousness may be classified into seven, under the category of dhatu (elements):

    1. element of visual cognition
    2. element of auditory cognition
    3. element of olfactory cognition
    4. element of gustatory cognition
    5. element of tactile cognition
    6. element of apprehension
    7. element of comprehension.
    Of these:
    • the two-fold classes of sight-consciousness are called the elements of visual cognition;
    • the two-fold classes of sound-consciousness are called the elements of auditory cognition;
    • the two-fold classes of smell-consciousness are called the elements of olfactory cognition;
    • the two-fold classes of taste-consciousness are called the elements of gustatory cognition;
    • the two-fold classes of touch-consciousness are called the elements of tactile cognition;
    • "the adverting of mind towards any of the five doors" (pancadvaravajjana) and the two-fold classes of "acceptance of impressions" (sampaticchana) are called the elements of apprehension;
    • the remaining one hundred and eight classes of consciousness are called the elements of comprehension.

    The fifty-two kinds of mental properties are also divided into groups:

    1. seven universals
    2. six particulars
    3. fourteen immorals
    4. twenty-five radiants.

    Of the twenty-four relations:

    • fifteen relations are common to all the mental states: arammana, anantara, samanantara, sahajata, annamanna, nissaya, upanissaya, kamma, ahara, indriya, sampayutta, atthi, natthi, vigata and avigata.

    There is not a single class of consciousness or mental property which arises without the causal relation of arammana (object). The same holds good as regards the remaining causal relations of anantara, samanantara, sahajata and so on.

    Eight relations only--hetu, adhipati, purejata, asevana, vipaka, jhana, magga and vippayutta--are common to some mental states. Of these, the relation of hetu is common only to the classes of consciousness conditioned by hetu; the relation of adhipati is also common only to the apperceptions (javanas) coexisting with dominance (adhipati); the relation of purejata is common only to some classes of mind; the relation of asevana is common only to apperceptive classes of moral, immoral, and inoperative consciousness; the relation of vipaka is also common only to the resultant classes of mind; the relation of jhana is common to those classes of consciousness and mental concomitants which come under the name of elements of apprehension and comprehension; the relation of magga is common to the classes of mind conditioned by hetu; the relation of vippayutta is not common to the classes of mind in arupaloka. Only one particular relation of pacchajata is common to material qualities.

    Here is the exposition in detail. The seven universal, mental properties are: phassa (contact), vedana (sensation), sanna (perception), cetana (volition), ekaggata (concentration in its capacity to individualise), jivita (psychic life) and manasikara (attention).

    Of these, consciousness may be the relation of adhipati; it may be the relation of ahara, and it may also be the relation of indriya; contact is the relation of ahara alone; sensation may be the relation of indriya, and may also be the relation of jhana; volition may be the relation of kamma, and may be the relation of ahara; ekaggata may be the relation of indriya; it may be the relation of jhana; and it may be the relation of magga also; psychic life is the relation of indriya alone; the two remaining states--perception and attention--do not become any particular relation.

    Consciousness by way of sight, obtains seven universal mental concomitants, and so they make up eight mental states. All of them are mutually related to one another by way of the seven relations: four superior sahajata and three of the medium sahajatas excluding the relation of dissociation. Among these eight mental states, consciousness causally relates itself to the other seven by way of ahara and indriya. Contact causally relates itself to the other seven by way of ahara; feeling to the rest by way of indriya alone; volition, by way of kamma and ahara; ekaggata, by way of indriya alone; and psychic life to the other seven, by way of indriya. The basis of eye causally relates itself to these eight states by way of six species of vatthupurejata. The present visual objects, which enter the avenue of that eye-base, causally relate themselves to those eight by way of four species of arammana purejata. Consciousness, which is called turning-towards-the-five-doors at the moment of cessation, just before the arising of sight consciousness, causally relates itself to these eight mental states by way of five species of anantara. Moral and immoral deeds which were done in former births, causally relate themselves to these eight resultant states of good and evil respectively, by way of asynchronous kamma. Nescience (avijja), craving (tanha) and grasping (upadana)--which co-operated with volition (kamma) in the past existence, and dwellings, persons, seasons, foods and so forth, of this present life, causally relate themselves to these eight states by way of pakatupanissaya (natural sufficing condition). The six relations-hetu, adhipati, pacchajata, asevana, jhana and magga--do not take part in this class of consciousness, but only the remaining eighteen relations take part. Just as the six relations do not take part--and only the eighteen relations do--in consciousness by way of sight, so do they in consciousness by way of hearing, smell, and so on.

    End of the Synchrony of Relations in the Five Senses.

    27. Synchrony of Relations in Consciousness not Accompanied by Hetu

    There are six mental properties termed Particulars (pakinnaka),-- vitakka (initial application), vicara (sustained application), adhimokkha (deciding), viriya (effort), piti (pleasurable interest), chanda (desire-to-do). Of these, initial application takes part in the relation of jhana and in the relation of magga. Sustained application takes part in that of jhana alone. Effort takes part in the relation of adhipati, in the relation of indriya, and in the relation of magga. Pleasurable interest takes part in the relation of jhana. Desire-to-do takes part in the relation of adhipati. Deciding does not take part in any particular relation.

    The ten concomitants, namely, seven universals, initial application, sustained application, and deciding from the particulars--obtain in the five classes of consciousness, i.e. turning-towards-the-five-doors, the twofold class of acceptance, and the twofold class of investigation accompanied by hedonic indifference. They form eleven mental states in one combination. Jhanic function obtains in these three classes of consciousness. Sensation, ekaggata, initial application, and sustained application perform the function of jhana relation. Consciousness (turning-towards-the-five-doors) belongs to the inoperative class, and so does not obtain in the relation of vipaka. Asynchronous kamma serves in place of upanissaya. So, leaving out jhana from, and inserting vipaka in, the relations which have been shown above as not obtainable in the five senses, there are also six unobtainable and eighteen obtainable in the consciousness, turning-towards-the-five-doors. As for the remaining four resultant classes of consciousness, by omitting vipaka, five relations are unobtainable, and, by adding vipaka and jhana, nineteen are obtainable.

    Investigating consciousness accompanied by joy, obtains eleven mental concomitants, namely, the above ten together with pleasurable interest. With the consciousness (turning-towards-the-mind-door), eleven concomitants coexist, and they are accompanied by effort. They make up twelve mental states together with the consciousness. Twelve concomitants, i.e. the above ten together with pleasurable interest and effort, coexist with the consciousness of aesthetic pleasure. They make up thirteen mental states in combination with the consciousness. Of the three classes of investigating consciousness, the one accompanied by joy has one more mental property (i.e. pleasurable interest) than the other two, in respect of the jhana factors: therefore, the unobtainable five and the obtainable nineteen relations are the same as in the two classes of investigating consciousness accompanied by hedonic indifference. In the consciousness (turning-towards-the-mind-door), the predominant property is merely "effort", which performs the functions of indriya and jhana, but not the functions of adhipati and magga. This consciousness, being of the inoperative class, does not obtain the vipaka relation. Therefore, the unobtainable six including vipaka, and the obtainable eighteen including jhana, are the same as in the consciousness (turning-towards-the-five-doors). The relation of vipaka is also not obtained in the consciousness of aesthetic pleasure, since it belongs to the inoperative class. But being an apperceptive class, it obtains in the relation of asevana. Therefore, five relations, including vipaka, are not obtainable, and nineteen relations including asevana, are obtainable.

    End of the Synchrony of Relations in Consciousness not Accompanied by Hetu.

    Synchrony of Relations in the Immoral Class of Consciousness

    There are twelve classes of immoral consciousness: two rooted in nescience, eight rooted in appetite, and two rooted in hate. There are fourteen immoral mental properties: moha (dullness), ahirika (shamelessness), anottappa (recklessness of consequences), and uddhacca (distraction)--these four are termed the moha-quadruple; lobha (greed), ditthi (error), and mana (conceit)--these three are termed the lobha-triple; dosa (hate), issa (envy), macchariya (selfishness), and kukkucca (worry)--these four are termed the dosa-quadruple; thina (sloth), middha (torpor), and vicikiccha (perplexity)--these three are termed the pakinnaka triple. Of these, the three roots--greed, hate, and dullness--are hetu relations. Error is a magga relation. The remaining ten mental properties do not become any particular relation.

    Here, the two classes of consciousness rooted in dullness are: consciousness conjoined with perplexity, and consciousness conjoined with distraction. With the first of these two, fifteen mental concomitants coexist. There are the seven universals, initial application, sustained application, effort (from the particulars), the moha-quadruple, and perplexity (from the immorals). They make up sixteen mental states in combination with consciousness. In this consciousness, i.e. the consciousness conjoined with perplexity, the relations of hetu and magga are also obtained. That is, dullness acts as the hetu relation; initial application and effort as the magga; and, as to ekaggata, as its function would be interferred with by perplexity, it does not perform the functions of indriya and magga, but it does the function of jhana. Therefore, the three relations (adhipati, pacchajata, vipaka) are not obtainable; and the remaining twenty-one are obtainable in this consciousness which is conjoined with perplexity.

    In consciousness conjoined with distraction, there are also fifteen mental properties--omitting "perplexity" and adding "deciding". They also make up sixteen mental states together with the consciousness. In this consciousness, ekaggata performs the functions of indriya, jhana and magga. Therefore, three relations are not obtainable, whereas twenty-one are obtainable.

    Seven universals, six particulars, the moha-quadruple, the lobha-triple, sloth and torpor--altogether twenty-two in number, severally coexist with the eight classes of consciousness rooted in appetite. Among these, the two roots--greed and dullness--are hetu relations; and the three mental states--desire-to-do, consciousness itself and effort--are adhipati relations. Arammanadhipati is also obtained here. Volition is the relation of kamma. The three foods are the relations of ahara. The five mental states: mind, sensation, ekaggata, psychic life and effort--are relations of indriya. The five jhana factors, i.e. initial application, sustained application, pleasurable interest, sensation, concentration, are jhana relations. The four magga constituents, i.e. initial application, concentration, error, and effort, are magga relations. Therefore only the two relations (pacchajata and vipaka) are not obtained. The remaining twenty-two are obtained.

    End of the Synchrony of Relations in the Immoral Class of Consciousness.

    Synchrony of Relations in the States of Mind

    There are ninety-one "radiant" classes of consciousness. They are: twenty four "radiant" classes of kama-consciousness, fifteen classes of rupa-consciousness, twelve classes of arupa-consciousness and forty classes of transcendental consciousness. Of these the twenty-four "radiant" classes of kama-consciousness are: eight classes of moral consciousness, eight classes of "radiant" resultant kind, and another eight classes of "radiant" inoperative kind.

    There are twenty-five kinds of sobhana ("radiant") mental properties: alobha (disinterestedness), adosa (amity), amoha (intelligence)--these three are termed moral hetus--saddha (faith), sati (mindfulness), hiri (prudence), ottappa (discretion), tatramajhattata (balance of mind), kayapassaddhi (composure of mental properties), cittapassaddhi (composure, of mind), kaya-lahuta (buoyancy of mental properties), citta-lahuta (buoyancy of mind), kayamuduta (pliancy of mental properties), citta-mudata (pliancy of mind), kayakammannata (fitness of work of mental properties), citta-kammannata (fitness of work of mind), kaya-pagunnata (proficiency of mental properties), citta-pagunnata (proficiency of mind), kayujukata (rectitude of mental properties), cittujukata, (rectitude of mind), samma-vaca (right speech), samma-kammanta (right action), samma-ajiva (right livelihood)--the last three are called the three abstinences; karuna (compassion) and mudita (sympathetic appreciation)--these last two are called the two illimitables.

    Of these, the three moral hetu are hetupaccayas. Intelligence appears under the name of vimamsa in the adhipati relation; under the name of panna in the indriya relation; and under the name of sammaditthi in the magga relation. Saddha or faith is the indriya relation. Sati or mindfulness is a satindriya in the indriya relation, and a sammasati in the magga relation. The three abstinences (right speech, right action, right livelihood) are magga relations. The remaining seventeen mental states are not particular relations.

    Thirty-eight mental properties enter into combination with the eight moral classes of kama-consciousness (kama=sense desires). They are: seven universals, six particulars, and twenty-five sobhana. Of these, pleasurable interest enters into combination only with the four classes of consciousness accompanied by joy. Intelligence also enters into combination with the four classes connected with knowledge. The three abstinences enter into combination only when moral rules or precepts are observed. The two illimitables arise only when sympathising with the suffering, or sharing in the happiness, of living beings. In these eight classes of consciousness, the dual or triple roots are hetu relations. Among the four kinds of adhipati, i.e. desire-to-do, mind, effort, and investigation, each is an adhipati in turn. Volition is the relation of kamma. The three foods are the relations of ahara. The eight mental states, i.e. mind, sensation, concentration, psychic life, faith, mindfulness, effort and intelligence are relations of indriya. The five jhana factors, i.e. initial application, sustained application, pleasurable interest, sensation and concentration are relations of jhana. The eight path-constituents, i.e. investigation, initial application, the three abstinences, mindfulness, effort and concentration are relations of magga. Therefore, only the two relations (pacchajata and vipaka) are not obtained in these eight classes of consciousness, and the remaining twenty-two are obtained. The three abstinences do not obtain in the eight sobhana classes of inoperative consciousness. As in the moral consciousness, two relations are unobtainable and twenty-two are obtainable here. The three abstinences and the two illimitables also do not obtain in the eight beautiful classes of resultant consciousness. The relations unobtainable are three in number, namely, adhipati, pacchajata and asevana; and the remaining twenty-one are obtainable.

    The higher classes of rupa, arupa and transcendental consciousness, do not obtain more than twenty-two relations. The synchrony of relations should be understood as existing in the four moral classes of kama-consciousness connected with knowledge. If this be so, then why are those classes of consciousness more supreme and transcendental than the kama-consciousness? Because of the greatness of asevana. They are fashioned by marked exercises, and so asevana is superior to them; for this reason, indriya, jhana, magga and other relations also become superior. When these relations become supreme--each higher and higher than the other--those classes of consciousness also become more supreme and transcendental than kama--consciousness. .

    End of the Synchrony of Relations in the States of Mind.

    Synchrony of Relations in the Groups of Material Qualities

    The synchrony of relations in the groups of material qualities will now be stated. There are twenty-eight kinds of material qualities:-

    • A. Four essential material qualities:
      1. the element of solidity (pathavi)
      2. the element of cohesion (apo)
      3. the element of kinetic energy (tejo)
      4. the element of motion (vayo); the tangible (photthabba): this material quality is composed of three essentials, namely, the element of extension, the element of kinetic energy and the element of motion.
    • B. Five sensitive material qualities:
      1. the eye (cakkhu)
      2. the ear (sota)
      3. the nose (gana)
      4. the tongue (jivha)
      5. the body (kaya).
    • C. Five material qualities of sense-fields:
      1. visible form (rupa)
      2. sound (sadda)
      3. odour (gandha)
      4. sapid (rasa).
    • D. Two material qualities of sex:
      1. female sex (itthibhava)
      2. male sex (pumbhava).
    • E. One material quality of life (jivita).
    • F. One material quality of heart-base (hadaya-vatthu).
    • G. One material quality of nutrition (ahara).
    • H. One material quality of limitation (akasa-dhatu).
    • I. Two material qualities of communication:
      1. intimation by the body (kayavinnatti)
      2. intimation by speech (vacivinnatti).
    • J. Three material qualities of plasticity:
      1. lightness (lahuta)
      2. pliancy (muduta)
      3. adaptability (kammannata).
    • K. Four material qualities of salient features:
      1. integration (upacaya)
      2. continuance (santati)
      3. decay (jarata)
      4. impermanence (aniccata).

    Of these, six kinds of material qualities--viz., the four essentials, the material quality of life, and the material quality of nutrition--causally relate themselves to the material qualities. Here also the four essentials are mutually related among themselves by way of five relations: sahajata, annamanna, nissaya, atthi, and avigata; and they are related to the coexistent material qualities derived from the latter by way of four relations (i.e. excluding annamanna in the above five). The material quality of life causally relates itself to the coexistent material qualities produced by kamma by way of indriya. The material quality of nutrition causally relates itself to both the coexistent and the non-coexistent material qualities which are corporeal by way of ahara.

    Again, thirteen kinds of material qualities causally relate themselves to the mental states by some particular relations. These material qualities are: the five kinds of sensitive material qualities, the seven kinds of sense-fields, and the heart-basis. Of these, just as a mother is related to her son, so also the five kinds of sensitive material qualities are causally related to the five sense-cognitions by way of vatthu-purejata, by way of vatthu-purejatindriya, and by way of vatthupurejata-vippayutta. And just as a father is related to his son, so also the seven sense-fields are causally related to the five sense-cognitions and the three elements of apprehension by way of arammanapurejata. In the same way, just as a tree is related to the deva who inhabits it, so also the heart-basis causally relates itself to the two elements of apprehension and comprehension by way of sahajatanissaya at the time of rebirth, and by way of vatthupurejata and of vatthu-purejata-vippayutta during life.

    There are twenty-three groups of material qualities. They are called groups because they are tied up with the material quality of production (jati-rupa) into groups, just as hair or hay is tied up with a string.[32] Of these, the eight kinds of material qualities, such as, the Four Essentials, colour, odour, taste, and nutritive essence, make up the primary octad of all material qualities.

    There are nine groups produced by kamma: the vital nonad, the basic-decad, the body-decad, the female-decad, the male-decad, the eye-decad, the ear-decad, the nose-decad, and the tongue-decad. Of these, the primary octad together with the material quality of vitality, is called the vital nonad. This primary nonad together with each of the eight material qualities, i.e. heart-basis and so forth, makes up analogously the other eight decads, i.e. base-decad, and so forth. Here the four groups: vital nonad, body-decad, and twofold sex-decad, locate themselves in a creature, pervading the whole body. Here vital-nonad is the name of the maturative fire (pacakaggi) and of the bodily fire (kayaggi). Pacakaggi, or maturative fire, is that which locates itself in the stomach and matures or digests the food that has been eaten, drunk, chewed and licked. Kayaggl, or the bodily fire, is that which locates itself by pervading the whole body, and it refines the impure bile, phlegm and blood. Through the inharmonious action of these two elements, creatures become unhealthy, and by their harmonious action they become healthy. It is this dual fire (or that vital-nonad) that gives life and good complexion to creatures.

    The body-decad makes available pleasurable and painful contact. The twofold sex-decads make available all the feminine characteristics to females and all the masculine characteristics to males. The remaining five decads are termed partial decads. Of these, the heart-decad, locating itself in the cavity of the heart, makes available many various kinds of moral and immoral thoughts. The four decads, i.e. eye-decad and so forth, locating themselves respectively in the eye-ball, in the interior of the ear, in the interior of the nose, and on the surface of the tongue, make available sight, hearing, smell, and taste.

    There are eight groups produced by mind: the primary octad, the sound-nonad, the nonad of body-communication, the sound-decad of speech-communication. Taking these four together with lightness, pliancy and adaptability, they make up another four: the undecad of plasticity, the sound-dodecad of plasticity, the dodecad of body-communication together with plasticity, and the sound-tre-decad of speech-communication together with plasticity. The last four are termed plastic groups, and the first four are termed primary groups.

    Of these, when the elements of the body are not working harmoniously, only the four primary groups occur to a sick person, whose material qualities then become heavy, coarse and inadaptable, and consequently it becomes difficult for him to maintain the bodily postures as he would wish, to move the members of the body, and even to make a vocal reply. But when the elements of the body are working harmoniously--there being no defects of the body, such as heaviness and so on, in a healthy person--the four plastic groups come into existence. Among these four, two groups of body-communication occur by means of mind or by moving any part of the body. The other two groups of speech-communication occur also on account of mind, when wishing to speak: but when non-verbal sound is produced through laughing or crying, only the two ordinary sound-groups occur. At other times the first two groups, the primary octad and the sound nonad, occur according to circumstances.

    There are four groups produced by physical change: the two primary groups (i.e. the primary octad and the sound nonad) and the two plastic groups, i.e. the undecad of plasticity and the sound dodecad of plasticity). Now this body of ours maintains itself right on throughout the whole life, through a long course of bodily postures. Hence, at every moment, there occur in this body the harmonious and inharmonious workings of the elements, through changes in the postures; through changes in its temperature, through changes of food, air, and heat; through changes of the disposition of the members of the body; and through changes of one"s own exertion and of others. Here also, when working harmoniously, two plastic groups occur; and when working inharmoniously, the other two primary groups occur. Of the four groups, two sound-groups arise when there occur various kinds of sound other than that produced by mind.

    There are two groups produced by food: the primary octad and the undecad of plasticity. These two groups should be understood as the harmonious and inharmonious occurrencess of material qualities produced respectively by suitable and unsuitable food.

    The five material qualities, namely, the element of space and the four salient features of matter, lie outside the grouping. Of these, the element of space lies outside the grouping because it is the boundary of the groups. As to the material qualities of the salient features, they are left aside from grouping, because they are merely the marks or signs of conditioned things, through which we clearly know them to be really conditioned things.

    These twenty-three groups are available in an individual. The groups available in external things are only two, which are no other than those produced by physical change. There are two locations of material qualities, the internal and the external. Of these two, the internal location means the location of a sentient being and the external location means the earth, hills, rivers, oceans, trees, and so forth. Therefore have we said that, in an individual, twenty-three groups, or all the twenty-eight kinds of material qualities, are available.

    Now the rebirth-conception and its mental concomitants are causally related to the groups produced by kamma at the moment of conception, by way of six different relations: the four superior sahajatas, the vipakas, and vippayutta. But to the heart-basis alone, they are causally related by seven relations, that is, the above together with the relation of annamanna. Among the mental states at the moment of rebirth, the roots are causally related by way of the hetu relation; the volition, by way of ahara; the controls, by way of indriya; the jhana constituents, by way of jhana; and the path-constituents, by way of Path to the kamma- produced groups. The past moral and immoral volitions are causally related by way of kamma alone. The first posterior life-continuum, the second, the third, and so on and so forth, are causally related to the prior material qualities produced by kamma, by way of pacchajata. By pacchajata are meant all the species of pacchajata. The past volitions are causally related by way of kamma alone. Thus, the mental states are causally related to the material qualities produced by kamma, by fourteen different relations. Here, ten relations are not obtained, i.e. arammana, adhipati, anantara, samanantara, upanissaya, purejata, asevana, sampayutta, natthi and vigata.

    During the term of life, mental states which are capable of producing material qualities, are causally related to the coexistent material qualities produced by them, by five different relations: the four superior sahajatas, and vippayutta. Among these mental states,--the hetus are causally related by way of hetu, the dominances by way of adhipati, the volition by way of kamma, the resultants by way of vipaka, the foods by way of ahara, the controls by way of indriya, the jhana factors by way of jhana, the path-constituents by way of magga, to the mind-produced material qualities. All the posterior mental states are causally related to the prior material qualities produced by mind, by way of pacchajata. Thus the mental states are causally related to the material groups produced by mind, by fourteen different relations. Here also ten relations are not obtainable: arammana, anantara, samanantara, annamanna, upanissaya, purejata, asevana, sampayutta, natthi, and vigata.

    During a lifetime, starting from the static phase of conception, all mental states are causally related both to the material groups produced by food and to those produced by physical change solely by way of pacchajata. Here again, by pacchajata are meant all the four species of pacchajata. The remaining twenty relations are not obtainable.

    Among the twenty-three groups of material qualities, the four essentials are mutually related among themselves by way of five different relations, namely, four superior sahajatas and one annamanna; but to the coexistent derivative material qualities by way of the four superior sahajatas only. The material quality of nutritive essence is causally related by way of ahara, both to the coexistent and the non-coexistent material qualities which are corporeal. The material quality of physical life in the nine groups produced by kamma is causally related only to the coexistent material qualities by way of indriya. Thus the corporeal material qualities are causally related to the corporeals by seven different relations. As for the external material qualities, they are mutually related to two external groups produced by physical change, by way of five different relations.

    End of the Synchrony of Relations in the Groups of Material Qualities.

    The meaning of the term 'Patthana' also will now be explained. "Padhanam thanam ti Patthanam": Patthana is the pre-eminent or principal cause. In this definition 'Padhana' means 'pre-eminent' and the word 'thana' means 'condition' or 'cause'. Hence the whole expression means the "pre-eminent cause", "the actual cause" or "the ineluctable cause". This is said having reference to its ineluctable effect or result.[33] There are two kinds of effect, namely the direct and the indirect. By "the direct" is meant the primary or actual effect, and by "the indirect" is meant the consequent or incidental effect. Of these two kinds, only the direct effect is here referred to as ineluctable, and for this reason: that it never fails to arise when its proper cause is established or brought into play. And the indirect effect is to be understood as "eluctable", since it may or may not arise even though its cause is fully established. Thus the ineluctable cause is so named with reference to the ineluctable effect. Hence the ineluctable or principal cause alone is meant to be expounded in this "Great Treatise". For this reason the name 'Patthana' is assigned to the entire collection of the twenty-four relations, and also to the "Great Treatise".

    And now, to make the matter more clear and simple.

    Say that greed springs into being within a man who desires to get money and grain. Under the influence of greed, he goes to a forest where he clears a piece of land and establishes fields, yards and gardens, and starts to work very hard. Eventually he obtains plenty of money and grain by reason of his strenuous labours. So he takes his gains, looks after his family, and performs many virtuous deeds, from which also he will reap rewards in his future existences, In this illustration, all the mental and material states coexisting with greed, are called direct effects. Apart from these, all the outcomes, results and rewards, which are to be enjoyed later on in his future existences, are called indirect effects. Of these two kinds of effects, only the former is dealt with in the Patthana. However, the latter kind finds its place in the Suttanta discourses. If this exists, then that happens; or, because of the occurrence of this, that also takes place. Such an exposition is called "expounding by way of Suttanta". In fact, the three states (greed, hate, and ignorance) are called the hetus or conditions, because they are the roots whence spring the defilements of the whole animate world, of the whole inanimate world and of the world of space. The three other opposite states (disinterestedness, amity, and knowledge) are also called hetus or conditions, since they are the roots whence springs purification. In the same manner the remainder of the Patthana relations are to be understood in their various senses. Thus must we understand that all things that happen, occur, take place, or produce changes, are solely the direct and indirect effects, results, outcomes, or products of these twenty-four Patthana relations or causes.

    Thus ends the Patthanuddesa-dipani, or The Concise Exposition of the Patthana Relations, in these three sections: The Paccayatthadipani (The Analytical Exposition of Relations), the Paccayasabhaga-sangaha (The Synthesis of Relations), and the Paccayaghatananaya (The Synchrony of Relations).

    This concise exposition of relations, "The Patthanuddesa Dipani", was written by The Most Venerable Ledi Arannaviharavasi Maha Thera of Monywa, Burma.

    FOOTNOTES:
    
    Note:	Wherever the verb "relate" is used as "relates to" 
            etc , it should be understood in the sense of "is related to", 
            "are related to", etc., respectively.
    [1]     See Compendium of Philosophy by S.Z. Aung and Mrs. Rhys Davids, 
            Page 190.
    [2]     See Compendium of Philosophy, page 108, n. 3.
    [3]     In this relation, "Paccaya" is generally known as "arammana" = 
            "hanger" (as a pot-hook) = "object"; and paccayuppanna" is known 
            as "arammanika" ="hanger-on" = " subject." (Translator.)
    [4]     The six doors of the senses--mind, in Buddhist Philosophy, 
            making the sixth "sense".
    [5]     See CompendiLim of Philosophy, page 83.
    [6]     Note by Translator.  Dhammato is equal to vatthuto or sarupato 
            or pabhedato.  Cittuppada has three aspects of meaning.
            Firstly, it means "consciousness," as in:
            "Tesam cittaviyuttanam        yathiiyogam ito param,
             Cittuppadesu paccekam        sampayogo pavuccati." 
                                          (See Part II, Sangaha).
            Secondly, it means "genesis of thought", as in:
            "Vithicittani satt'eva:       Cittuppada catuddasa:
            Catupannasa vitthhara         Pancadvare Yatharaham" 
                                          (See Part IV, Sangaha.)
            Thirdly, it means "mind and its concomitants," as in:
            "Cittuppadanam" icc'evam      Katva sangaham" uttaram,
            Bhumipuggalabhedena           Pubbaparaniyamitam." 
                                          (See Part IV, Sangaha.)
    
            In each of these instances, the construction of the compound 
            "cittuppada" should also be noted.  In the first instance, it is 
            constructed as follows: Uppajjatiti uppado.  Cittam"eva uppado 
            cittuppado; in the second instance, Cittassa uppado cittuppado: 
            in the third instance, Uppajjati etena'ti uppado dhammasamuho.  
            Cittanca uppado ca cittuppado.
    
    [7]    Note by Translator Lokuttaradhammas are here meant, i e., the 
           four pairs made up of the four stages of the Path with the Fruit 
           of the same and Nibbana.
    [8]    Sights, sounds, odours, savours, contacts, ideas.
    [9]    Truth here means the sincerity of the promise he had given.
           Translator.
    [10]   Mind, here refers to one of the apperceptions which are usually 
           fifty-five in all, but in this connection we must exclude the two 
           classes of dull consciousness as well as aesthetic pleasure.  The 
           other three dominants are their own concomitants. Translator.
    [11]   In no mass of earth, water, fire, or air, do these "elements" 
           exist in a state of absolute purity.  The other "elements" are 
           always present, but in a very subordinate proportion.
    [12]   That is one who attains Nibbana unaided. 
    [13]   Here, Science, Arts, and Handicrafts are meant. 
    [14]   Ledi Sayadaw here seems to explain the life term of a womb-born 
           being. 
    [15]   Has been rendered as "sustained cessation". Here the cessation is 
           that not only of consciousness but also of mental concomitants 
           and mental qualities, born of mind. (Translator.) 
    [16]   Here (hadayam) is the seat of (citta) thought. 
    [17]   That is to say, Nibbana and concepts (or more properly, concept-
           terms) do not enter time, and therefore are not subject to time's 
           nature, change.  They do not "arise"; therefore they do not 
           "cease".  They are "everlasting and eternal" in the sense of 
           being extra-temporal, not in the vulgar sense of being endlessly 
           continuous in time. 
    [18]   Here abyakata is rendered as "unspecified" or "unmoral".  It is 
           explained in the commentary as Kusala-akusalabhavena akathita, 
           annabhavena kathita; i.e., not to be called as moral or immoral, 
           but to be called as "apart-from-both", i.e., unmoral or 
           unspecified.  The abyakatadhammas are--All classes of resultant 
           and inoperative consciousness and all material qualities, as well 
           as well as Nibbana.  Translator. 
    [19]   That is "sufficing condition" as set forth in the manner of the 
           Suttas or general discourses of the Buddha, as distinguished from 
           the manner in which it is dealt with in the Abhidhamma section of 
           the Scriptures. 
    [20]   Niyamadipani was written by the late Ven. Ledi Sayadaw and 
           translated into English by Ven. U Nyana and Dr. Barua. 
    [21]   Beings whose coming into existence takes place in any other mode 
           than the ordinary one of birth from parents; what occidentals 
           might call "supernatural beings" though not all of them are to be 
           understood as superior to man in any vital respect.  Many are 
           inferior to man, in power and faculty, as well as in the 
           opportunities open to them of winning Nibbana.  Translator.   
    [22]   Here, the origins of material qualities are meant.  The word 
           "origin" is used in the sense of Darwin as in the "Origin of the 
           Species." 
    [23]   Here, utu (lit., season) has been rendered as "temperature".  It 
           may also be rendered by popular acceptance, as "physical change," 
           "caloric energy," "heat and cold," etc. 
    [24]   Ledi Sayadaw has not explained the cetanavattha.  But it is easy 
           enough to understand, since it is the commission of the initial 
           volition or kamma. 
    [25]   The Four Causes are (1) kamma, (2) citta (consciousness), (3) utu 
           (temperature) and (4) ahara (nutriment). 
    [26]   Of these, the last three are confined to lokuttara alone.  And of 
           these three, the first is the knowledge pertaining to the First 
           Path, the second that pertaining to the last three Paths and the 
           first three Fruitions, and the third pertaining to the last 
           Fruition only. 
    [27]   See Compendium, Part VII. 
    [28]   Standing out of, or going beyond, its normal mode. 
    [29]   "Certainly O Kaccana, (the soul) exists is the one extreme, and 
           (the soul) does not exist, is the second extreme." 
               This is a passage where the problem of soul, self or ego is 
           discussed as to its existence or non-existence as a real personal 
           entity. 
    [30]   Here, the word appaccaya is not a kammadharaya compound but of 
           the bahubbihi class--thus: natthi paccaya etesam ti appacaya.  
           Asankhata is a kammadharaya compound--thus: samkariyante ti 
           sankhata; na sankhata ti asankhata.  
    [31]   There are four postures for all beings: sitting, standing, 
           walking and lying down.
    [32]   Ledi Sayadaw here makes the number of groups twenty-three instead 
           of twenty-one, as in the Compendium. (Cf. Compendium, page 164.) 
           He also makes the groups of material qualities produced by 
           thought number eight instead of six, as in the Compendium; thus 
           they are here increased by two. (Cf. Paramatthadipani, page 
           273.) Translator. 
    [33]   Elsewhere I have rendered the word "paccayuppana" as "related 
           things".  
    
    

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